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The Americas, West Africa, and Europe

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1 The Americas, West Africa, and Europe
Chapter 1 Section 1

2 Ancient Cultures in the Americas
First humans- from Asia-40,000 years ago Spread across N and S America Hunting and Gathering 10,000 – 5,000 years ago – Mexico Farming → communities or civilizations 3,000 years ago Native American civilizations Aztecs→ settled in Mexico 1200s

3 Native American Societies of the 1400s
Pueblo in Southwest (AR and NM)→ adobe houses→ grew rice and beans Iroquois in Northeast (NY) → hunted, fished, gathered fruits and nuts Trade routes linked Native Am groups→ share goods/ideas Land was not to be bought and sold, but to be shared Family and spirits

4 West African Societies of the 1400s
Kingdoms and strong rulers Islam → 1400s. Founded by Muhammad→ 1 God, Allah Portuguese settled on islands off of Africa→ farms → African slaves

5 European Societies of 1400s
Rank system Rules/ Nobles→ powerful/owned land Church leaders clergy, important also Peasants→ at bottom, worked fields The Reformation, early 1500s→ ppl belonged to Roman Catholic Church but some called for changes. Ppl broke away and formed Protestant churches. New $ New business→ joint-stock companies: ppl invested $, company used $ for trade and investors got profits. Better ships and navigation → exploration

6 Spanish North America Chapter 1 Section 2

7 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic
Tried to find NW passage to Asia for trade. Claim any land for Spanish and convert them to Christianity 1492 → then 3 more trips brought ppl to settle the land Not good for Indians→died of diseases, working conditions No more Indians? Need more slaves → Africans. 1250s – 1800s 12million African slaves to America Treaty of Tordesillas → divided western Hemisphere N to S to settle disputes on colonization: Spain in West, Portugal in East

8 The Spanish Claim a New Empire
After Columbus many more conquistadores, Spanish explorers. Hernán Cortés→ conquered the Aztecs and took their gold. →Aztecs rebelled→ 1521 Spanish defeat Aztecs and called colony New Spain Spanish men married Native American women and had mestizos children → half Spanish half Native American Brutal working conditions → brought in African slaves → Spain really rich

9 Spain Explores the Southwest and West
Spain sent explorers→ missionaries → to New Mexico Sante Fe → convert Pueblo ppl so that other European nations wouldn’t Built missions in TX, CA Native Americans did the labor

10 Early British Colonies
Chapter 1 Section 3

11 An English Settlement at Jamestown
1607 English settlers founded Jamestown, VA 1st permanent English colony →leader John Smith Rough to survive, almost didn’t make it Sell tobacco→ indentured servants: got food and shelter to work on plantation Ppl began to fight, poor were taxed too much and not voting

12 Puritans Create a “New England”
Puritans→ religious group that wanted to rid the Church of England of Catholic practices 1620 founded a colony in Plymouth 1630→ Mass Bay Colony→ leader: John Winthrop, more prepared than others Tried to convert Native Americans 1674→ King Philip’s War→ Native Americans vs English→ English won

13 Settlement of the Middle Colonies & Prosperity
William Penn and the Quakers→ religious tolerance, equality, cooperation→ treated Native Americans fairly Trade=prosperity mercantilism→ rich 2 ways: 1. getting gold and silver 2. selling more than it buys (duh) Navigation Acts: England control trade with colonies 1732→ 13 English colonies: assemblies that could raise taxes and make laws

14 The Colonies Come of Age
Chapter 1 Section 4

15 Plantations in the South and Industry in the North
Had cash crops→ tobacco plantations Used and depended on African slave labor Got rich North Manufacturing and trade Many immigrants No dependent on slave labor

16 The Enlightenment & Great Awakening
The Enlightenment→ you could use reason and science to find truth→ Leader: Ben Franklin 2 important effects: 1. science as a source of truth weakened authority of Church 2. ppl has natural rights that govt must respect and challenged authority of British rulers Great Awakening→ renewed religious feelings → new Christian denominations

17 French and Indian War France had land too → Great Lakes, Canada
Brits and French fought over the land 1754 War began: Brits win 1763: France gives up Canada & all of N. Am east of Mississippi River to Brits Native Americans dislike Brits→ led by Pontiac Native Am try to attack: lose. Proclamation of 1763: Brits banned colonists from settling west of Apps (they did it anyway)

18 Colonial Resistance and Rebellion
Chapter 2 Section1

19 Problems between the Colonies and Britain
Colonists say that Brits tax them too much: i.e. Sugar Act Said Brits had no right to tax them bc they were not represented by Parliament Stamp Act: made colonists buy stamps to put on everything→ boycotted brit goods

20 Problems between the Colonies and Britain Cont.
1770→ Boston Massacre: Brit soldiers fire at mob of colonists Boston Tea Party: dumped Brit tea into harbor (symbolic) Britain closes Boston Harbor and put Boston under martial law 1st Continental Congress writes a declaration of colonial rights and says if Brits attack they will fight them

21 Road to Revolution New England towns prepare for war with ammo and whatnot 1775 Brits march to Lexington Mass to get weapons→ Battle of Lexington and Concord: colonists defeat Brits 2nd Cont. Congress meet→ send peace offer to King George III, he rejects it and says that colonists are in rebellion

22 The Patriots Declare Independence
Colonists reject Brit rule with help from ideas of John Locke (life, liberty and property) and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense July 4, 1776 Thomas Jefferson writes the Declaration of Independence People’s rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness cannot be taken away Gov’t gets power from the people and ppl can remove gov’t if it threatens rights Listed how the King took away their rights

23 The War for Independence
Chapter 2 Section 2

24 Choosing Sides & Important Battles
Loyalists: supported the British and were loyal to the King Patriots: wanted independence March 1776: Brits seize NYC- tried to isolate Christmas Night 1776: Washington crosses the Delaware and took Trenton, NJ Fall 1777: Saratoga, NY: Americans defeat Brits and convince France to support them Valley Forge: Washington’s army suffered from cold and hunger

25 Winning the War 1778 Americans get help
France→ Marquis de Lafayette British→ Charles Cornwallis Yorktown: French and Am forces surround Brits→ surrendered on Oct Treaty of Paris 1783: Brits recognize the US as a nation with borders from Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River

26 The Confederation and the Constitution
Chapter 2 Section 3

27 Experimenting with Confederation
Republic: a gov’t which ppl elect reps to govern. Democracy: power by an electoral system. Articles of Confederation: gave a lot of power to states and little to federal gov’t Northwest Ordinance of 1787: land west of Apps Mts= territories and decided how new states would enter the union Problem: small states has same power as big states

28 Writing and Ratifying the Constitution
Checks & Balances: prevents any branch from getting too much power Time to ratify or give official approval Federalists: support new Const. Antifederalist: opposed the Const. Wanted Bill of Rights: formal written guarantee of rights→ freedom of speech, religion, and press Const. can be changed, amended, living doc.

29 George Washington 1st President
Bc he kicked so much butt in Revolutionary War, he was the logical choice to be 1st Wooden Teeth?! Not really, but had many different types of dentures but none of them ever worked. Never smiled in pictures

30 Launching the New Nation
Chapter 2 Section 4

31 Hamilton vs Jefferson Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of Treasury- wanted strong central gov’t → got central bank → Federalist Thomas Jefferson: Sect of State- wanted weak central gov’t; more state rights→ Democratic-Republican

32 John Adams 2nd President – Bad temper Jefferson as VP→ runner up is VP
Adams and Jefferson hated each other XYZ Affair- France interferes with Am shipping, and try to bribe Am officials, the ppl want a war, Adams settles it with diplomacy Alien and Sedition Acts → against the law to slander gov’t officials

33 The Jeffersonian Era Chapter 3 Section 1

34 Thomas Jefferson 3rd President
Jeffersonian republicanism→ ppl should control the gov’t and it should be small and simple Louisiana Purchase→ bought from France the land from Mississippi River to the Rockies→ sent Lewis & Clark to explore

35 Jefferson Cont Marbury vs Madison and judicial review→ Supreme Court has authority to decide of a law was allowed by Const. Super intelligent→ wrote Declar of Indpe On his tombstone he did not include that he was President of US Had an affair with his slave Sally Hemmings, thought to have 5 kids with her, recent DNA evidence confirms this

36 War of 1812 Britain and France at war→ both threatened Am ships, and Brits seized Am sailors and forced them to serve in brit navy. It’s On!→ Am wins! 3 important outcomes: 1. Anti-war Federalists died out 2. Am develop industries 3. US is independent

37 The Age of Jackson Chapter 3 Section 2

38 Industrial Revolution & Nationalism and Sectionalism
North establishes market economy→ farming and manufacturing that support each other. South→ Cotton Gin increases cotton production, more slaves needed Missouri Compromise→ which states would be admitted into the union as free or slave. Result→ Slavery would only be legal only south of a certain line.

39 Andrew Jackson 7th President
Jacksonian democracy: faith in the common man Almost assassinated twice! By the same guy! Crazy guy thinks that he is heir to Brit throne and misfires on first shot and Jackson goes after him, guy misfires again! He is acquitted bc insanity. Odds of two consecutive misfires: 1 in 125,000

40 Jackson Cont. Indian Removal Act: Native Am must move west of Mississippi River→ Trail of Tears: Cherokee were forced to walk from Georgia to new territory→ quarter of Cherokee died States’ Rights: more power to states, less to federal gov’t→ those who thought that Jackson had too much power formed the Whig Party

41 Manifest Destiny Chapter 3 Section 3

42 Settling the Frontier Why go West?
Economic→ cheap land and a fresh start Manifest Destiny→ thought that God wanted them to settle the West and control it What about the Native Americans? Treaty of Fort Laramie→ gave them control of much of central plains. N. Am had to agree not to attack settlers.

43 Settling the Frontier Cont.
Trails to the West: Santa Fe Trail & Oregon Trail→ Jim has dysentery! Mormons followed the Oregon Trail and settled in Great Salt Lake Britain and US split up the Oregon territory →this give us current US/Canadian border

44 Texan Independence Mexico wanted Am to settle in Texas so it would become more stable→ soon Am outnumbered Spanish speaking ppl= conflict Protestant not Catholic Brought slaves→ Mexico outlawed slavery and tried to get the Texans to free their slaves Tried to force Texans to obey Mexican law= Texas Revolution

45 Texan Independence Cont.
The Alamo→ Mexicans captured the Am mission and killed 187 Ams→ “Remember the Alamo” James Polk becomes Pres and expanded westward even more Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo→ gave almost half of Mexico’s land to US

46 Market Revolution Chapter 3 Section 4

47 New Economy Market revolution: ppl began to buy and sell goods rather than making them for themselves Free enterprise: econ system in which private businesses and individuals control production Textile mills: unsafe working conditions & low pay Strike Unions

48 Reforming American Society
Chapter 3 Section 5

49 Spiritual Awakening & Reform
Second Great Awakening: religious movement that used emotional sermons to awaken religious feelings Unitarian: appealed to reason not emotion → wealthy educated ppl Transcendentalism: one could find truth by looking at nature and within themselves → ppl who wanted to reform society- Ralph Waldo Emerson Gave hope of freedom to enslaved ppl

50 Slavery & Abolition Abolition: effort to free the slaves
William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator → immediate freeing of slaves → extreme Frederick Douglass Former slave (escapes) learned to read and write, spoke out against slavery → said that it needed to be done w/out violence Nat Turner led violent slave rebellion. Result: whites afraid → restrictions even tighter

51 Women and Reform Many women worked for abolition movement and women’s rights Elizabeth Cady Stanton: helped to organize women’s convention Seneca Falls Convention: supported reforms Women’s suffrage: right to vote Sojourner Truth Former slave→ spoke out for women’s rights and abolition

52 The Divisive Politics of Slavery
Chapter 4 Section 1

53 Slavery in the Territories
Wilmot Proviso: a bill that would ban slavery in many territories. North: liked it- too many slave states would give them too much power in Congress South: hated it- said that slaves were property which is protected by Const. CA wants to enter as free state even though most of it is below Missouri Compromise line. Pres Zach Taylor says that states can decide how they want to enter the Union.

54 Slavery in the Territories Cont.
South says that any a ban on slavery is a challenge to their lifestyle Threaten with secession: a decision to leave the Union Henry Clay: Compromise of 1850 CA= free state Fugitive Slave Act: requires Northerners to return an escaped slave to the master.

55 Protest, Resistance, and Violence
Response to Fugitive Slave Act→ Underground Railroad: volunteers that hid slaves on their way to freedom Harriet Tubman: escaped slave, worker on railroad Kansas-Nebraska Act→ newly divided state could decide if they wanted slavery or not. Both sides rushed to get it admitted as their own. Violence broke out: nickname: Bleeding Kansas

56 Slavery and Secession Dred Scott: slave taken to free state by master. Scott claims that since he lived in a free state for a time he was free. Supreme Court says no: he is property Abe Lincoln: against slavery Wins presidential election with no help from Southern Dems South feels that they lost political power and 7 southern states leave Union Confederate States of America: Pres. Jefferson Davis

57 The Civil War Begins Chapter 4 Section2

58 Union & Confederate Forces Clash
Civil War begins: April 1861 Fort Sumter in SC Held by Union but on Confed territory → Union doesn’t give it up → Confeds attack and take it. North advantages: more ppl, more factories, more food, better rails. South advantages: better generals, more soldiers

59 Union & Confederate Forces Clash Cont.
North 3 part plan: 1. blockade Southern ports to keep out supplies 2. split Confeds in two at Miss River 3. capture Confed capital Richmond VA Bull Run: 1st battle, Confeds win. Stonewall Jackson→ Confeds general Ulysses S. Grant→ Union general Robert E. Lee→ defends Confed capital Defeated at Antietam: bloodiest battle

60 Politics of War January 1, 1863: Emancipation Proclamation: freed all slaves in Confed lands. Not yet for slave states still apart of the Union North: high moral purpose South: even more reason to fight

61 The North Takes Charge Chapter 4 Section 3

62 The Tide Turns 1863: South wins many battles under general Stonewall Jackson→ accidentally shot by own troops Robert E. Lee takes over→ tries to invade the North The Battle of Gettysburg: after 3 days of fierce fighting Lee retreats Grant captures Vicksburg for the Union. Union controlled Mississippi River Confed split in 2

63 The Tide Turns Cont. The Gettysburg Address: Delivered by Abe Lincoln
More than 50,000 soldiers died from both sides Abe honors the dead and asks Americans to preserve the Union.

64 The Confederacy Wears Down
Losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg weaken morale for the South Ulysses S. Grant: commander of Union armies & William Tecumseh Sherman: commander of military in Mississippi Fought the South hard→ destroyed towns as went Conditions very harsh for Southerners April 9, 1865 end of Civil War Lincoln says terms should not be harsh. Confeds not to be taken prisoner

65 The War Changes Everything
Nation: No state threatened to seceded Federal govt became more powerful Southern econ collapses No slavery Ruined lands American Life: 13th Amendment: abolished slavery in the US Abe Lincoln shot by John Wilkes Booth

66 Reconstruction and Its Effects
Chapter 4 Section 4

67 The Politics of Reconstruction
Reconstruction: the period of rebuilding after the Civil War & bringing Confed states back into the Union Andrew Johnson now Pres. He upholds Lincoln plan→ pardoning Confeds if they swear allegiance to Union

68 The Politics of Reconstruction Cont.
Radical Republicans thought too easy on South. Wanted: Destroy political power of former slave owners Af. Am to be citizens & right to vote Freedman’s Bureau: gave food, clothing to former slaves & hospitals. 14th Amendment: gave Af. Am citizenship 15th Amendment gave Af. Am right to vote

69 Changes in Southern Econ
Af. Am wanted own land: promised “40 acres and a mule”→ Congress did not honor it. No more slaves sharecropping: system where landowners give a few acres to workers and they keep some profit and give the rest to owner. Tenant famers: rented land for cash.

70 Changes on the Western Front
Chapter 5 Section 1

71 Native American Cultures in Crisis
Great Plains: grassland in west-central US Plains Indians: Horses: made N. Am more mobile, hunted buffalo Buffalo: many basic needs, food, shelter, clothing Why Move West?: Gold and Silver: Cities developed around mining towns Homestead Act: 160 acres of free land to anyone who would live on the land and cultivate it for 5yrs

72 Native American Cultures in Crisis Cont.
The gov’t sets aside land for N. Am but later reverses it and limits the land occupied by tribes Tribes that attempt to stay on land are slaughtered by US troops Gov’t forces the Sioux to sign Treaty of 1868→ restricts them to a reservation. Sitting Bull doesn’t sign it, thinks he can do as he pleases. Nope.

73 Cont. Little Bighorn: Custer tries to defeat N. Am there and secure gold. Sitting Bull ready for them → Custer’s Last Stand Armies raided and Sitting Bull surrenders Dawes Act: effort to try to Americanize N. Am Land sold, children taken away, buffalo gone Battle of Wounded Knee: Ghost Dance to bring back buffalo→ Scares white ppl→ massacre of N. Am.

74 The Growth of the Cattle Industry
Chapter 5 Section 2

75 Cattle Industry Spanish explorers intro cattle and horses to SW.
“cowboy culture”: food, clothing, vocab Growth of railroads helps with market of booming cattle industry. More beef demanded by city ppl= increase in cattle industry

76 Cont. Changes needed in cattle frontier
Cows cause over grazing and land is destroyed Now must stay in one area and have farms→ no more open lands. Barbed wire is huge invention that keeps cattle in one spot.

77 Settling on the Great Plains
Chapter 5 Section 3

78 Settlers Flock Westward to Farm
Transcontinental railroad: Central Pacific Co: Sacramento, CA to East Union Pacific Co: Omaha, NE to West 1896 met in Promontory, UT Most of the work done by: Irish, Chinese immigrants & Af. Am and Mexican Am. By ,000 homesteaders settled the land Not families as much as cattlemen and miners

79 Settlers & Challenges on the Plains
ppl living west of Mississippi River grew from 1% to 30%. Ppl built soddys: homes that were dug into side of hills or made of sod. Isolation→ farming difficult= new inventions Steel plow, wheat reaper Morrill Land Grants: established agricultural colleges→ new crops & growing techniques

80 Farmers and the Populist Movement
Chapter 5 Section 4

81 Farmers Unite to Address Common Problems
Serious econ problems: supply of $ ↓= makes each dollar in circulation worth more good for consumers bad for farmers bc received less $ for crops. Farmers wanted ↑ in $ supply bc it increase price of goods. Gov’t says NO. Transportation also cost a lot of $, barely made $

82 Cont. Wanted Reform! Oliver Kelly: starts organization: Grange→ place for farm families to discuss social and education issues. Others joined: Farmers’ Alliances: teachers, preachers, newspaper editors who sympathized with farmers. Traveled throughout Plains to educate farmers→ get lower interest rates, protest railroads

83 The Rise and Fall of Populism
1892 Alliance leaders create Populist Party→ Populism: movement to gain more political and economic power for common ppl. Reforms: direct election of senators, secret ballots Gained power, not as much as 2 main parties Panic of 1893: ppl borrowed too much $ and went bankrupt Two groups formed around election

84 Cont. 1st group: wanted paper money backed with gold “gold bugs”. Would give dollar higher value 2nd: bimetallism: money backed by gold and silver→ exchange gold/silver for paper $ Republicans: gold bugs→ William McKinley Dems and Populist: William Jennings Bryan McKinley won, Populism dies out. But many of their reforms happen in 20th Cent.

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