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Fungi A spore stalk from a fungus that killed a carpenter ant

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Presentation on theme: "Fungi A spore stalk from a fungus that killed a carpenter ant"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fungi A spore stalk from a fungus that killed a carpenter ant
grew upward from the ant’s head.

2 All Fungi are…. eukaryotic heterotrophs What does eukaryotic mean?
What is a heterotroph?

3 Categories of Fungi Multicellular Unicellular Most fungi
Do not contain chloroplasts Honey mushroom Unicellular Yeasts

4 Cell Walls Plants - made of cellulose Fungi - made of chitin Chitin is strong and flexible

5 Fungi Parts

6 Fungi Parts - Hyphae Threadlike filaments that make up the basic structure of the fungi’s body (all parts) Provide support Provide a large surface area for nutrient absorption

7 Fungi Parts - Mycelium A netlike mass made up many hyphae Formed below ground Absorb nutrients

8 Fungi Parts - Fruiting Body
Reproductive structure Above ground portion

9 Obtaining Nutrients & Energy
Through Decomposition Saprophytic fungi - feeds on dead organisms or organic wastes Recycle nutrients

10 Obtaining Nutrients & Energy
2. Through Parasitism Absorb nutrients from living cells of another organisms (a host) These parasitic fungi grow thread-like mycelium throughout the tree on which they grow. The mycelium steal nutrients from the tree, and cause damage to the structure of the tree.

11 Obtaining Nutrients & Energy
3. Through Mutualism With another organism, such as a plant or alga Ex: mycelia on a root of a soybean plant Fungus receives sugar from the host plant Mycelia increase water uptake and mineral absorption for the host plant

12 Asexual Reproduction Budding New cell develops while attached to parent cell

13 Asexual Reproduction Fragmentation The mycelium of a fungus is broken off or “fragmented” Can grow into new mycelia

14 Reproduction Spore - a reproductive cell, haploid, has a hard outer coat, will develop into a new organism, produce new hyphae Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Produce spores though meiosis

15 Great Barred Frog infected with the chytrid fungus
Branches of Fungi Great Barred Frog infected with the chytrid fungus Chytrids yeast Common Molds bread mold Sac Fungi morels & truffles, yeast Club Fungi Mushrooms Imperfect Fungi Penicillium Bread Mold Truffle (fungus) Mushrooms

16 Chytrids DNA and protein sequences more similar to fungi than protists Chitin-containing cell walls

17 Common Molds Stolons: Hyphae that spread across the surface of food Rhizoids: Penetrates the food and absorbs nutrients

18 Sac Fungi Conidiophores Spores form at the tips, so they are easily dispersed by wind, water and animals (Most spores form inside the sporangia, not at the tip)

19 Club Fungi Dikaryotic mycelia Each cell has two nuclei

20 Club Fungi Reproduce sexually: Form a basidiocarp (fruiting body)
Hyphae (basidia) produce spores Two nuclei fuse to form a dipoid nucleus Divides by meiosis into 4 haploid spores Dispersed by wind, water, animals

21 Lack a sexual stage of reproduction Called “Imperfect Fungi”
Very diverse group Lack a sexual stage of reproduction Called “Imperfect Fungi” Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually

22 Lichens Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a alga Fungus provides protection The alga provides food (photosynthesis)

23 Lichens are Bioindicators
Very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions By observing lichen populations and their health, we can monitor the effects of pollution in an area More pollution  Fewer lichens Less pollution  More lichens

24 Benefits of Fungi Decomposers - recycle nutrients
Medical uses - penicillin (antibiotic), reduce high blood pressure, control excessive bleeding, treat migtaine headaches, promote contractions during childbirth, prevent organ rejection in organ transplant patients Food - mushrooms, yeast, truffles Bioremediation - cleaning the environment of pollutants

25 Harmful Fungi American elm trees & American chestnut trees killed by certain fungi Agricultural crops damaged Can act as parasites in humans & other organisms Athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infections

26 Moldy Bread Why should you throw away the whole loaf of bread, even if the mold only appeared on one piece?

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