Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack Preparation 5 years Terrorism takes much time and planning Execution: 1 day Diagnosed case: 3 days First Deaths Occur
Methods of Terrorism Nuclear Weapon Biological Agents Chemical Agents Explosive and Incendiary Devices
Nuclear Terrorism Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials Detonate a nuclear weapon
Biological Terrorism Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages. Microbes –Bacteria –Viruses –Toxins
Biological Terrorism: Is This Something New? 14th Century – Kaffa –City on Crimean Peninsula Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it.
Biological Terrorism: Is This Something New? 18 th Century French and Indian War –British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French –Caused an epidemic in tribes –Effective means of incapacitating group
Responses to Bioterrorism Emergency measures to save lives Early detection of active and potential cases Prevention and management of secondary contamination
Example of Chemical Terrorism Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20, 1995 12 people were killed and 53 were seriously injured
Proportion of death from terrorism in total death in the United States Average death per year From terrorism From all causes Proportion (%) 1990s825342030.0003 2001289324046240.12
Risk of Dying Smoking 10 cigarettes a dayOne in 200 All natural causes age 40One in 850 Road accidentOne in 8,000 Playing soccerOne in 25,000 HomicideOne in 100,000 Terrorism attack in 2001One in 100,000 Hit by lightningOne in 10,000,000 Terrorism attack in 1990sOne in 50,000,000
Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001? The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990s, and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001 But the risk increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. 11 Overall the risk of terrorism has not been high Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear engulfed our country and world
U.S. Counterterrorism Policy First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals. Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior. Fourth, bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of those countries that work with the U.S. and require assistance.
Terrorism in the Future Could be higher levels of violence. Although technology aids in the defense against terrorism, it also provides terrorists with increased opportunities. –Chemical weapons –Weapons of mass destruction
Conclusion Terrorism is a unlawful act meant to provoke FEAR! Terrorism has a long history of been used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives Terrorism can be conducted through nuclear, biological, chemical agents and explosive devices The risk of dying from terrorism is much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage.