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Remember Roanoke! Melissa Knowles

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1 Remember Roanoke! Melissa Knowles
Journey to Jamestown Remember Roanoke! Melissa Knowles Stop to write in journals throughout!!!

2 Of course, I did get the settlement named after me!!
King James In 1607, I granted the Virginia company of London the ability to begin another settlement. Of course, I did get the settlement named after me!!

3 The Virginia Company???? The Virginia Company was a group of wealthy Englishmen who wished to invest their money in a profit- making venture. Their motives were both financial and patriotic. They expected to open new lands for exploration, use the resources of the New World for industry and to develop new employment opportunities for English workers. They also hoped to find the same riches that the Spanish had been bringing home from other parts of the New World. The English were still looking for another way to bring spices to England from the Orient, and they planned to convert the Native Americans to Christianity.

4 We must be prepared The investors planned the settlement, purchasing supplies, acquiring the ships, gathering the settlers and choosing the leaders. A sealed letter was sent to be read upon arrival which named the officers of the settlement.

5 You will be on one of these ships
The Virginia company sent 3 ships to settle Virginia. Susan Constant Discovery Godspeed Passengers at sea had no duties and a great deal of free time. They spent much of their time "tween" deck and often would pass the time with storytelling, gambling at cards or dice, checkers or dominoes, or playing musical instruments. Often religious services were held. An individual paid to transport himself across the Atlantic or if he could not pay had to serve a period of indenture to the person who paid his fare. This period of indenture could last from three to seven years.

Specifications: Length Overall:   116’ Beam:   24’ 10” Draft:   11’ 9” Mast Height:   95’ Sail Area:   3,902 square feet Year Built:   tons burden Christopher Newport, Captain 54 passengers and 17 crew, est. Susan Constant was the flagship and the largest of the three ships that brought the first permanent English settlers to America in While anchored in the River Thames near Limehouse, it was involved in a minor collision with another vessel which led to a case in the High Court of Admiralty. The resulting court records were used to assist in determining the size of this re-creation. The original was probably built in 1605 and almost certainly built on the River Thames near London. Soon after the Jamestown colony was planted, the Susan Constant returned to England, continuing its career as an ordinary trading vessel. SUSAN CONSTANT

7 All Aboard! Specifications: Length Overall:   88’ Beam:   17’ Draft:   7’ Mast Height:   71’ 6” Sail Area:   2,420 square feet Year Built:   tons burden Bartholomew Gosnold, Captain 39 passengers and 13 crew, est. Godspeed was the second largest vessel in the fleet. It was a typical small merchant trader, but the age or origin of the original is not known. The voyage to Virginia lasted 144 days, including delays, island stops en route, and time exploring in Virginia before settling at Jamestown on May 14, John Smith recorded that Godspeed was a 40-ton vessel, and early 17th-century treatises on naval architecture and rigging served as guides for design and construction of this replica. GODSPEED

8 All Aboard Specifications: Length Overall:   66’ Beam:   14’ 10” Draft:   6’ 6” Mast Height:   59’ Sail Area:   1,160 square feet Year Built:   tons burden John Ratcliffe, Captain 12 passengers and 9 crew, est. The smallest of the three vessels was the pinnace Discovery. It was purchased especially for the voyage by the Virginia Company. Susan Constant and Godspeed sailed back to England in mid-June. Discovery did not sail with the other vessels. It was used by the settlers to explore the inland waterways of the Chesapeake Bay. Hand Captain Newport the envelope which contains the list of names of the councilors who will become the leaders of the colony upon arrival. Explain that according to Virginia Company orders, he may not look at the list until they arrive in Virginia. Ask the students why it might be important to keep the list secret. DISCOVERY

9 Bonus Question Susan Constant: 1 captain, 54 passengers and 17 crew Godspeed: 1 captain, 39 passengers and 13 crew Discovery: 1 captain, 12 passengers and 9 crew How many total people were on the three ships? Hide answer 147 people

10 Where is England?

11 Who were you on the voyage?
Get your name and head to the boat. It’s Saturday, December 20, 1606, the day we begin our voyage. We wave goodbye to our family and friends as we head down the Thames River in London! Hand out student name cards (Appendix E and Appendix F) to students and explain that they will be participating in an activity that will help them understand the hardships of the voyage and settlement of Jamestown. Explain that the name cards contain the name and profession of a real person who took this journey. For this activity, they will be that person. Tell them that 144 men and boys went to Virginia. These included gentlemen/ soldiers, one blacksmith, one mason, two bricklayers, four carpenters, one tailor, one barber, two surgeons, four boys, mariners and laborers. Most of them were taking the trip with hopes of making a profit. Some will sign indenture servant contracts and sweep, empty slop buckets, and scrubbing the deck.

12 Headed to the ocean or so we thought!

13 Then a fierce storm occurs!
Ships sail through storms all the time today. Why was this storm so bad for the voyage? The ships used an established southerly route in order to catch favorable trade winds and ocean currents, as well as to make re-provisioning stops in the Canary Islands and the Caribbean. After spending six weeks in the “Downs” in the English Channel waiting for winds, the ships headed south along the coast of Europe and North Africa, stopping at the Canary Islands. They then turned west to the Caribbean, making several stops. Finally, the ships sailed north, parallel to the coast of North America, ending in Virginia. The entire trip was more than 6,000 miles.

14 We stop to get more supplies

15 And were off at mph!

16 Sea Life for crew and passengers!
Living conditions on the ships were cramped and tedious as the ships carried livestock and a full cargo. The settlers were from a variety of backgrounds including both gentlemen and laborers, which caused tension. They spent a good deal of their time battling sea-sickness, as well as boredom.

17 What’s to eat! Ship’s Biscuits Dried Beef Dried Fruit
Fresh water that turns bad throughout the voyage Ship’s Biscuits: Add water to 1lb wholemeal flour and 1/4oz salt to make a stiff dough. Leave for 1/2 hour and then roll out very thickly. Separate in to 5 or 7 biscuits. Bake in a hot oven approx. 420 degrees F for 30 minutes. The biscuits should then be left undisturbed in a warm dry atmosphere to harden and dry out. Beef Jerky Moldy water: Green colored water in mug On long voyages, much food became spoiled; the biscuit moldy, the meat full of maggots, the beer watery, and water fouled.

18 At least I have a space to sleep…right?
Actually…no Passengers were located in the tween deck with cargo. Passengers needed to crouch down, because there was not room to stand. The straw mattresses must be rotated out.

19 I NEED the necessary!!! They used a chamber pot that was emptied when the servants had time at the head of the ship.

20 What is there to do? Games: Checkers Dominos Playing Cards

21 Our Voyage Calm weather
Hatches are open so we get a breeze. Colonial Air-conditioning!! Aww…indentured servants work We can play games!

22 Primary Sources While you are listening…
Think through the ship boy’s account Now add to your journal entry to someone back home in London describing the boy’s activities Read “William Ships Boy”

23 Nighttime Lay down to “SLEEP” if there is room. Noise Rocking boat
Hatches are closed Storms a brewing!

24 Another Morning Comes Rough weather No games played Cold food
Stop along the way and arrest John Smith. Explain that he has been making a nuisance of himself and that he is being accused of mutiny. Put the handcuffs (I used rope here) on him. Travel on a bit, then stop and tell the students there has been a death on board of one of the ships. Edward Brookes has died. Have the student with this name card step away from the ships, next to you.

25 Afternoon Bright skies are here again Games can begin

26 Land Ho! 4 months at sea Captain…open the sealed
orders for choosing a site. Enjoy this clip! Sealed Orders from the Virginia Company were opened which named Captain John Smith as a member of the governing Council. Smith had been arrested for mutiny on the voyage over by Christopher Newport, and was incarcerated aboard one of the ships. He had been scheduled to be hanged upon arrival, but was later freed by Captain Newport after the opening of the orders. The same orders also directed them to seek an inland site for their settlement, which would afford protection from enemy ships. Therefore, the English Colonists re-boarded their three ships and proceeded into the Chesapeake Bay landing again at what is now called Old Point Comfort in the City of Hampton. In the following days, the ships ventured inland upstream along the James River seeking a suitable location for their settlement as defined in their orders. The James River and the initial settlement they sought to establish, Jamestown (originally called "James His Towne") were named in honor of King James I. [edit] Selecting Jamestown Arriving on May 14, 1607, the colonists chose Jamestown Island for their settlement largely because the Virginia Company advised them to select a location that could be easily defended from ocean-going navies of the other European states that were also establishing New World colonies and were periodically at war with England, notably the Dutch Republic, France, and especially Spain. The island fit the criteria, as it had excellent visibility up and down what is today called the James River, and it was far enough inland to minimize the potential of contact and conflict with enemy ships. The water immediately adjacent to the land was deep enough to permit the colonists to anchor their ships yet have an easy and quick departure if necessary. An additional benefit of the site was that the land was not occupied by the Virginia Indians, most of whom in the area were affiliated with the Powhatan Confederacy. The settlers came ashore, and quickly set about constructing their initial fort. Within a month, James Fort covered an acre on Jamestown Island, although it burned down the following year. The wooden palisaded walls formed a triangle around a storehouse, church, and a number of houses.[4] [edit] Explanation: Island vs Peninsula Jamestown is often referred to as an island. During periods of the past 400 years, it has been joined by a narrow land bridge (or "isthmus") to the mainland; at other times, the flow and fluctuations of the James River severed and recreated the connection, thus perhaps the confusion in definition. Although it is technically a peninsula when thus connected, functionally, in many ways, Jamestown throughout the past 400 years has been an island. Largely cut off from the mainland's typical game and wildlife by natural forces, the shallow harbor afforded the earliest settlers docking of their ships. This was its great attraction, one which came at the price of other far less favorable conditions.

27 Finding the right spot The colonists first landed at a point of land at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay they named Cape Henry in honor of the eldest son of King James. Here they planted a cross claiming the land for England and establishing Protestantism in the New World. Sailing westward across the lower Bay, they stopped at a place they later called Point Comfort where they met and feasted with the Kecoughtan Indians. From here they sailed up a river they named the “James” in honor of their King. The colonists had been instructed to locate their settlement inland on a river that bent to the northwest. In addition, they wanted to find a site which would enable them to defend themselves from Indian attacks. The location selected for the Jamestown settlement seemed to fit both of these criteria, having the added bonus of having a channel deep enough to anchor their ships by tying them to the trees on shore. Complete decoding 17th century english.

28 Open another sealed document
Upon arrival, Newport opens the sealed instructions from the Virginia Company of London. They specify a thirteen-man council, among whose members are John Smith; Newport (who returns to England); John Ratcliffe; George Kendall, a cousin of Sir Edwin Sandys; Edward Maria Wingfield; Anthony Gosnold; Richard Hunt, a minister; John Marten and Sir Richard Marten, both related to Julius Caesar, England's Master of the Rolls. This Council elects a president, Edward Maria Wingfield. Lets see who you are on this voyage and adventure!

29 How many of each group are here?
Where are the workers?

30 Did you survive? Many died in those first few years of starvation, disease, and battle! Only 38 survived the first 6 months.

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