2 A. Obstacles to living on land Harsh ultraviolet light oxygen produced in oceans converted to ozoneAbsorbing minerals mutualism with fungi, similar to mycorrhizaeConserving moisture Waxy cuticle, with pores called stomataReproducing on land sperm protected in pollen grains
5 B. Vascular Tissue and Seeds Tissues to conduct materials within a plant.Xylem moves water and dissolved minerals from roots to leaves.Phloem moves carbohydrates from leaves to roots.A seed contains the embryo of a plant.Seeds provide advantages such as protection, nourishment, dispersal, and delayed growth.
16 E. Evolution of flowersFlowering plants are more efficient than conifers, because animals often carry the pollen.
17 Flower have four basic structures: A. Sepals – modified petals, protect flower while it is a bud
18 Petals – may be scented and/or colored to attract animals
19 Stamen – male reproductive structure, with anther and filament Pistil – female reproductive structure, with stigma, style, and ovary. Fertilized egg develops within ovary, becomes a seed.
20 A cotyledon is a leaf-like structure that stores food for the embryo Angiosperms are divided into two classes:Plants with one cotyledon are called monocots.Plants with two cotyledons are called dicots.