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Plant Classification Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Classification Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Classification Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae

2 Characteristics Photosynthetic Multicellular Eukaryotic Cell walls made up of cellulose Sexual (seeds and spores) and asexual (vegetative propagation) reproduction Common ancestor was green algae (a protist)

3 2 Categories of Plants: Vascular and Nonvascular Vascular tissue is specialized tissue for the transport of water and solutes through a plant

4 Vascular Plants Vascular plants make up over 90% of all plants Ferns (seedless), gymnosperms (cone bearing) and angiosperms (flowering plants) Xylem and phloem make up vascular tissue –Xylem- tissue that carries water and minerals upward in a plant –Phloem- tissue that carries sugars (from photosynthesis) upward and downward in a plant

5 Vascular Plants Have roots –To absorb water, anchor the plant in the ground, protect the plant from bacteria and fungi –Two types of roots Taproot- enlarged primary root; grows deep below the surface (carrot) Fibrous- numerous, extensively branched roots, grow near the surface (prevents topsoil from being washed away (grass)

6 Vascular Plants Have stems –Holds leaves up to sunlight and transport water and food between roots and leaves Water TransportFood Transport

7 Vascular Plants Have leaves –Collect light for photosynthesis –Have stomas- pores in epidermis of leaf for carbon dioxide, water vapor and oxygen to be exchanged

8 Stoma

9 Vascular Plants Reproduce by seeds and spores –Ferns- have spores, no seeds (sperm and egg) –Gymnosperms- seeds in cones (pine tree) –Angiosperms- seeds in flowers (deciduous trees, flowers and bushes)

10 Seedless Vascular Plants Ex: Clubmoss, horsetails & ferns –Have true roots, stems, leaves & veins

11 Nonvascular Plants- Bryophytes Mosses, liverworts and hornworts Lack vascular tissue for long distance transport of water and solutes More dependent on water, need to live in moist environment

12 Nonvascular Plants Lack true roots, stems and leaves Have rhizoids- long, thin cells that anchor them to the ground and absorb water and minerals Need water for sexual reproduction –for sperm to swim to egg

13 Moss, liverwort & hornwort

14 Human Uses of Mosses Sphagum- a group of mosses that live in acidic water or bogs Acts as a natural sponge Peat moss for fuel and shipping products

15 Adaptations Cuticle to reduce water loss Lignin to make cell walls harder which allows trees to grow taller and spread branches and leaves to catch sunlight Bud scales to protect buds from winter temperatures Deciduous trees lose their leaves and become dormant in winter

16 Plant Life Cycle Alternation of Generations Plants have two alternating phases in their lifecycle A diploid (2N) phase –Sporophyte (makes spores by meiosis) A haploid (N) phase –Makes gametes by mitosis

17 Alternation of Generations Sporophyte (2N) Gametophyte (N) Spores (N) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Eggs (N) Haploid Diploid


19 Parts of Leaf Mesophyll- ground tissue where photosynthesis takes place Guard Cell- specialized cells in the epidermis that controls the opening and closing of the stoma Cuticle- waxy coating on leaf to reduce water loss Epidermis- outer layer of the leaf Xylem- cells that carry water upward from the roots Phloem- cells the transport sugars throughout the plant Stoma- pore-like openings in the underside of the leaf that allow CO2 and O2 to diffuse in and out of the leaf

20 Parts of Leaf

21 A Perfect Flower A perfect flower is one that contains both male and female reproductive structures. The male reproductive structures are collectively called the stamen. The stamen consists of the filaments and anthers. The female structures are collectively called the pistil. The pistil consists of the ovary, style and stigma. The sepals and the petals are called sterile structures since they are not part of the reproductive system.

22 A Perfect Flower

23 Sepals- usually green surrounding the flower and protect the flower while it is developing Petals- Often brightly colored and attracts insects and other pollinators Stamen- Male portion of the flower –Anther- oval sac where pollen is made –Filament- long, thin stalk that supports the anther Pistil (Carpel)- Female portion of the flower –Ovary- contains ovules (female gametophyte) –Style- stalk to carpel (connects stigma to ovary) –Stigma- top sticky portion of the pistil (carpel), where the pollen lands Angiosperm Reproduction

24 Comparing Features of Seed Plants FeatureGymnospermsAngiosperms SeedsBear their seeds on conesBear their seeds within flowers Reprod.Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Ex:Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes Grasses, flowering trees, shrubs, wildflowers, cultivated flowers

25 Plant Response Phototropism- tendency of plant to grow light. Gravitropism- response of a plant to the force of gravity (why plants grow up) Photoperiodism- response of plants to periods of light and dark

26 Tree Parts Heartwood- contains old xylem; provides tree with support. Sapwood- contains active xylem Vascular Cambium- produces new xylem Cork Cambium- produces cork Cork- contains nonfunctioning phloem

27 Bark Cork- contains old nonfunctioning phloem Vascular Cambium- produces new xylem Xylem: Sapwood- contains active xylem Phloem Xylem: Heartwood- contains old xylem provides the tree with support

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