Presentation on theme: "The Cold War. From Allies to Adversaries A fter World War II the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two main world powers. The conflict."— Presentation transcript:
From Allies to Adversaries A fter World War II the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two main world powers. The conflict between the two was called the Cold War.
Yalta Conference T he Big Three Allies Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin discussed what would happen after Germany was defeated.
The Division of Germany A fter WW II the French, British, Americans and Soviets controlled part of occupied Germany. The capital Berlin was also divided into four sectors.
The United Nations 50 nations met in San Francisco to form the United Nations. The organization was dedicated to peacefully resolving international disputes.
The Iron Curtain I n 1946 Winston Churchill declared the Soviets were the enemy. He said the eastern European countries were behind an “Iron Curtain.”
Truman Doctrine 1947 Harry Truman called for containing the spread of communism. Therefore, the US aided governments fighting communism. Containment was also called the Truman doctrine.
The Marshall Plan I n 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed economic aid to Europe after WW II. The US sent nearly $13 billion to Western Europe. This economic aid rebuilt Western Europe.
The Berlin Crisis: What would you do? n In 1948 the Soviets cut all road and rail traffic to West Berlin. n Truman met with advisors to discuss options including: n 1. armed actions against the Soviets to keep the rail lines open n 2. Allowing West Berlin to fall to Soviet control n 3. Air lifting food and supplies to West Berlin n What would you suggest?
The Berlin Airlift F rom June of 1948 the Soviets blockaded all land access to Berlin. For almost a year the US and British planes airlifted 1.5 million tons of supplies to residents in West Berlin.
Crisis in Turkey and Greece n Look at your map, are Greece and Turkey in the US sphere or the Soviet sphere of influence after WW II? n The Greek Government is being attacked by communist guerilla n The Soviets are pressuring Turkey to control the shipping lanes in Turkish waters n Both countries are asking for financial and economic assistance from the US, should President Truman provide aid?
Eastern vs.. Western Europe A fter World War II Europe was divided. Eastern European countries became communist and were part of the “Soviet Bloc.” Western European nations were allied with the US.
N.A.T.O. I n 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed by the US and its western European allies. The NATO alliance protected members against communist aggression.
The Warsaw Pact I n response to the western military alliance NATO, the Eastern European countries formed their own military alliance with the Soviets in 1955, known as the Warsaw Pact.
The Nuclear Arms Race I n 1949 the Soviet Union announced it had successfully tested an atomic bomb. In 1952 the US exploded the first hydrogen bomb at a test site. Less than a year later, the Soviets announced their first test of a hydrogen bomb. The arms race was on.
Chinese Revolution I n 1949 the Chinese Communists, led by Mao Zedong took over China. Now China joined the Soviet Union as the second communist nation in the world.
The Korean War n After WW II Soviet and US troops entered Korea to disarm the Japanese troops n Korea was divided, with US troops controlling the south and Soviet troops controlling the north. n IN 1950 the North Koreans invaded South Korea, beginning the Korean War.
The US enters Korean War n Truman wanted to contain North Korean communist aggression n The United Nations requested US troops to back the South Koreans. n China and the Soviet Union backed North Korea
Truman Fires MacArthur n General MacArthur wanted to pursue North Korean troops into southern China n Truman did not want to expand the war and fired MacArthur for his public criticism of Truman’s Korea policy
A Stalemate n In 1953 the Korean war ended with each side maintaining its territory and Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel n 33,600 US soldiers died in the war n The Korean war marked the expansion of the Cold War into Asia
The Berlin Wall T he communist authorities in East Germany begin the construction of the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin.
The Berlin Wall Falls S oviet Premier Gorbachev abandons Soviet control of east Germany. After massive public demonstrations in East Germany the Berlin Wall falls on November 1989.
Germany Reunified I n 1990 the Soviet Union, Great Britain, the US, and France withdrew from Germany. East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Soviet Union Collapses In 1991 Gorbachev was ousted as Soviet Premier. Boris Yeltsin, supported by protestors, took over. The Soviet Union was dissolved in December of 1991.
Cold War Ended T he fall of the Berlin Wall and the creation of independent countries from the former Soviet Union signaled the end of European communism, and the Cold War.
Credits n PowerPoint Slideshow by Dave Forrest - 2001 n Visuals from Ditto.com and CNN Cold War Website n Http://www.cnn.com/ SPECIALS/cold.war Http://www.cnn.com/ SPECIALS/cold.war Http://www.cnn.com/ SPECIALS/cold.war