Presentation on theme: "Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper."— Presentation transcript:
1 2//12-Pick up your book. **Take out your GATTACA & EOCT Review Wksts.** Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper.How do you think you did on the DNA Test?Honestly, how long did you study?What could YOU do to improve your grade?What could I/WE do to help you?
2 2/17/12-Copy & answer the following questions on a blank sheet of paper.How do you think you did on the DNA Test?Honestly, how long did you study?What could YOU do to improve your grade?What could I/WE do to help you?
6 Cell Reproduction Chromosome Structure Rod shaped, made of DNA proteinsHISTONES are proteins that help in the packaging of DNA and maintain the shape of thechromosome.NONHISTONE proteins control the activity of specific regions of DNA.Individual chromosomes consist of 2 identical halves called CHROMATIDSThe center of the chromosome is the CENTROMERE. It holds the 2 chromatids together.
8 There are 2 types of chromosomes SEX CHROMOSOMES-determine the sex of an organismIn humans, sex chromosomes are either X or YFEMALES=XXMALES=XY
9 Types of chromosomes, cont. AUTOSOMES-all other chromosomesHumans have 46 chromosomes total 44 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomesOrganisms get 1 copy of each autosome from a parent-making 2 copies called HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES. They are the same size, shape, and carry the same info.
11 A KARYOTYPE is used to examine an individual’s chromosomes.
12 VERY IMPORTANT VOCAB!!Cells that have 2 sets of chromosomes are DIPLOID (2n).HAPLOID (n) cells have only 1 set of chromosomes.Sperm and egg cells are haploid cells.
13 Quick Quiz 1. What are the 2 parts of the chromosome? 2. What are the two types of chromosomes in your body3. How many chromosomes do your body cells contain? Your sex cells?4. Cells that have one set of chromosomes are ______________. Cells that have two sets are ______________.
14 2/23/12-Have out EOCT p1 &2Do-Now: Pick up and complete the chromosome crossword puzzle. #1 Down should read “Humans have 22 pairs” Study over yesterdays notes…
15 Cell Division in Prokaryotes Divide asexually by BINARY FISSIONProduce identical offspring3 stagesDNA is copiedCell begins to divide2 identical haploid cells are formed
16 Cell Division in Eukaryotes MITOSIS-cell division that results in 2 new cells with identical genetic material to the original cellThe CELL CYCLE is the repeating set of events that make up the life of a cell. CELL DIVISION is one phase and INTERPHASE is the time between divisions.
18 Interphase Made of 3 phases G1 PHASE-offspring cells grow to mature sizeS PHASE-DNA is copied (REPLICATION)G2 PHASE-cell prepares for division*Cells can exit the cell cycle and enter the G0 PHASE where DNA isn’t copied and cells don’t divide. Nervous system cells stop dividing at maturity.*
19 Mitosis During mitosis, the M PHASE, the nucleus of the cell divides. 4 phases of mitosis (Interphase is before and after mitosis/cytokinesis.)PROPHASEMETAPHASEANAPHASETELOPHASE
21 PROPHASE DNA coils into chromosomes Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappearDark spots appear (CENTROSOMES), which contain the CENTRIOLES (plants DO NOT have centrioles)SPINDLE FIBERS radiate from the centrosomes
22 METAPHASEChromosomes move to the MIDDLE of the cell
23 2/24/12-Do-Now: Complete the word search puzzle (back of yesterday’s crossword). Study your Week 7 Vocabulary—Prefix/Suffix
24 ANAPHASEChromatids of each chromosome separate at centromere & move toward opposite sides of the dividing cell
25 TELOPHASE Spindle fibers disappear Chromosomes uncoil Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomesNucleolus reformsTelophase is almost the opposite of prophase.
26 CYTOKINESISCYTOKINESIS occurs when the cytoplasm starts to divide. It starts when telophase is complete.In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in (CLEAVAGE FURROW) & separates the dividing cell into 2 new cells.In plant cells, the membrane bound cell wall forms (CELL PLATE) & separates the cell into 2 new cells.
29 Ticket to Leave How does cell reproduction occur in prokaryotes? What is the cell cycle?List and briefly describe the four steps of mitosis.***QUIZ !!!!***
30 ***QUIZ TUESDAY—Cell Division Notes!!!!!!*** 2/27/12-Get out Mitosis Foldable. Study for Week 7 Vocab (Rescheduled to today)Do-Now:What is the relationship between prophase and telophase?The phase where the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell is _____.When the chromatids split from one another and move to opposite poles of the cell, ____ is occurring.List the 3 parts of Interphase & describe what happens during each.***QUIZ TUESDAY—Cell Division Notes!!!!!!***
31 Review Matching—Wk 7 Give the meaning of the following: Amphi-Ab-Archos-cideCorpusPheno-Anthro-Ad-Audio-Circum-
32 Meiosis Cell division in SEX cells Produces haploid (n) reproductive cells called GAMETESHuman gametes are SPERM & EGGEach contain 23 chromosomesFusion of sperm (n) & egg (n) forms a ZYGOTE (2n) that contains 46 chromosomes**Cells begin meiosis just like mitosis—it’s just that cells divide TWICE in meiosis**
35 DNA REPLICATIONDuring replication, the DNA of a 2n (diploid) cell is copied.This only occurs before MEIOSIS I.
36 Meiosis I PROPHASE I DNA coils, spindle fibers appear HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES pair up-called SYNAPSIS (doesn’t happen during mitosis)Portions of chromatids break off and attach to nearby chromatid on the homologous pair-called CROSSING OVERAllows for genetic info exchange between mother/father chromosomes giving a new mixture of genetic info-called GENETIC RECOMBINATION
38 METAPHASE ITETRADS (each pair of homologous chromosomes) line up in middle of cellSpindle fibers attach to the homologous chromosomes of the pair
39 ANAPHASE IEach homologous chromosome moves to the opposite side of the dividing cellRandom separation of the homologous chromosomes is called INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT and it results in genetic variations
40 TELOPHASE I Chromosomes reach the opposite ends of cell Each of the new developing cells will contain a haploid number of chromosomes.CYTOKINESIS I occurs
41 2/28/12-Take out “Directed Reading” & Meiosis Notes from yesterday. Do Now: Determine if the following terms/phrases describe mitosis or meiosis. 1. Results in 2 genetically identical cells 2. Results in 4 genetically different cells 3. Produces diploid (2n) cells 4. Produces haploid (n) cells 5. Produces body cells 6. Produces gametes 7. Allows growth and replacement of cells 8. How sexually reproducing organisms make gametes 9. Type of cell division ***Cell Reproduction Test—Thursday****
42 MEIOSIS II The newly formed cells DO NOT copy their DNA. PROPHASE II Spindle fibers form and move chromosomes toward the middle of the cell
43 METAPHASE IIChromosomes move to the midline of the cells-facing opposite side of the cells
44 ANAPHASE IIChromatids separate and move to opposite sides of cell
45 TELOPHASE IINuclear membrane forms around chromosomes in each of the 4 new cellsCYTOKINESIS II occurs resulting in 4 new cells, each containing HALF the number of chromosomes as the original cell
46 Formation of GametesSPERMATOGENESIS-production of sperm cells--2n reproductive cell divides through meiosis to form 4 haploid cells called SPERMATIDS (each will develop into a mature sperm)
47 Formation of Gametes, cont. OOGENESIS-production of egg cells, 2n reproductive cell divides through meiosis to form ONE mature egg cell—the other three cells are polar bodies and will degenerate (unequally divided cytoplasm)
48 Ticket to Leave What is crossing over? Meiosis is used to form __________.List the steps of meiosis I & II.The formation of sperm is called ___________.The formation of eggs is called __________.
49 2/29/12- Pick up “Cell Cycle Handout @ the back and complete -Look on the right hand side of paper—& use the “Word Bank”Take out last night’s HW on the back of your “Meiosis Notes”
50 3/1/12- Take out your Chapter 10 Cell Division Review & Study….. Work on Week 8—Prefix/Suffix vocab.Another word for sex cells = __________The 2 main stages of cell division are called _______ & cytokinesis.
51 2/28/12-You do NOT need a book. Do Now: Determine if the following terms/phrases describe mitosis or meiosis. 1. Results in 2 genetically identical cells 2. Results in 4 genetically different cells 3. Produces diploid (2n) cells 4. Produces haploid (n) cells 5. Produces body cells 6. Produces gametes 7. Allows growth and replacement of cells 8. How sexually reproducing organisms make gametes 9. Type of cell division
52 9/23/11-You do NOT need a book. Do-Now: Take out your Directed Reading to be checked.Give the meaning of the following:Homo 7. HapHetero 8. KineTyp 9. InterPheno BiGeno MetaDi Ana
53 3/2/12After the Test:Complete the Cell Reproduction Word Puzzle on the back of your CHAPTER 10 Cell Division Review Sheet.There are no words listed. When you find a word that relates to cell division, circle it and write it at the bottom in the table. The person with the most words will get bonus points.