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What were the primary causes of the Civil War?

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Presentation on theme: "What were the primary causes of the Civil War?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What were the primary causes of the Civil War?
Essential Question What were the primary causes of the Civil War?

2 Slavery and Western Expansion

3 The Missouri Compromise
1819 – Missouri applied for statehood 11 slave states 11 free states

4 Missouri Compromise Missouri requested to enter as a slave state
How to maintain the balance in Congress between slave and free?

5 Missouri Compromise Proposed by Henry Clay (KY)
Maine admitted as a free state Missouri admitted as a slave state

6 Missouri Compromise No slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of Latitude 36/30 (Missouri’s southern border)

7 Missouri Compromise

8 Quote, Thomas Jefferson
“This momentous question, like a firebell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell [funeral bell] of the Union. It is hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence.”

9 Results of the Mexican War
Increased tension between the North and the South Should slavery spread westward to the new territories?

10 Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot (Democrat from PA)
Proposed no slavery in any territory gained from Mexico Angered Southerners

11 Popular Sovereignty Proposed by Lewis Cass
Citizens of new territories would vote on the slavery issue

12 California After the gold rush increases its population, California applied to become a state

13 The Compromise of 1850 Reading the text on page 323 of your textbook, describe the six major resolutions of Clay’s compromise, then indicate whether the North or the South would most benefit from each. Use the chart on your worksheet.

14 Compromise of 1850 CA admitted as a free state
Popular sovereignty in NM and UT Resolve TX border dispute with NM Pay TX $10 million Abolish slave trade in DC New Fugitive Slave Act


16 Fugitive Slave Act Southern slaveowners traveled north to track down escaped slaves Northerners did not want to assist southerners in recapturing slaves

17 Henry David Thoreau, “Civil Disobedience”
“Unjust laws exist. Shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?”

18 Mounting Violence

19 Kansas-Nebraska Act Desire to open northern Plains to settlement
Led by Stephen Douglas (IL)


21 Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise
Divided territory into two states: Kansas and Nebraska Allow popular sovereignty to determine the issue of slavery

22 Kansas-Nebraska Act Passed in May 1854
Northerners hurried to Kansas to make an anti-slave majority


24 Bleeding Kansas Slave supporters from Missouri attacked Kansas residents, voted illegally Became a territorial civil war

25 Lawrence, Kansas

26 Caning of Charles Sumner
May 1856 – Charles Sumner (MA) accused slave supporters in the Senate of corruption in Kansas Preston Brooks (southern Congressman) caned Sumner

27 Caning of Charles Sumner
Southerners considered Brooks a hero – gave him canes inscribed with “Hit Him Again” Northerners strengthened determination to resist slavery

28 Dred Scott Decision Attempt by the Supreme Court to settle the decision about slavery in the western territories Southern majority of judges

29 Dred Scott Slave who traveled with owner from Missouri to free territory for many years Sued for freedom after his master’s death

30 Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney
Ruled against Dred Scott by claiming African Americans were not citizens

31 Quote, Roger B. Taney “It is the opinion of the Court that the act of Congress which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning [enslaved persons] in the territory of the United States north of the line therein mentioned is not warranted by the Constitution and is therefore void.”

32 Dred Scott Decision Stated the federal government could not deny slavery in any territories of the United States

33 John Brown’s Raid Abolitionist
Attempted to seize the federal arsenal of weapons at Harpers Ferry, VA Wanted to lead an insurrection of slaves

34 John Brown’s Raid Oct. 16, 1859 Brown took control of the arsenal
U.S. Marines captured him Tried and executed

35 Brown’s Statement to the Court
“I believe that to have interfered as I have done I have done no wrong, but right. Now it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my blood With the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel and unjust enactments, I say, let it be done!”


37 Southern Response Believed northerners were plotting the murder of slaveowners Georgia Senator Robert Toombs, “Defend yourselves! The enemy is at your door!”

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