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Published byMarilyn Flowers Modified over 5 years ago

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Musical Instruments

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Standing Waves Waves that reflect back and forth interfere. Some points are always at rest – standing waves.

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Closed Ends Both ends fixed limits the standing wave. A whole number of half- wavelengths must fit in the space. A whole number of nodes and antinodes. nodeantinode

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Harmonics The lowest frequency that can fit is the fundamental frequency. Higher frequencies are called harmonics.

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Percussion Percussion instruments strike an object with an impulsive force. The object oscillates with a fundamental frequency (pitch) and harmonics. Bulk modulusBulk modulus Mass densityMass density F

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Strings String instruments use friction to cause a resonant oscillation. The frequency is controlled on the instrument string. Length Tension Mass density v F fr

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Open Ends Columns of air can be directly vibrated. Displacement is maximum at the open end. Where displacement is maximum, pressure is minimum.

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Single End One end open and one end closed creates a different set of harmonics. These patterns are the basis for wind instruments.

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Clarinet The clarinet has an air column 32.8 cm long and act like a column open at one end. What is the fundamental frequency? The first harmonic is The speed of sound is 343 m/s. f = (343 m/s) / 4 (0.328 m) f = 261 Hz next

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