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The Nixon Administration

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1 The Nixon Administration
President Richard M. Nixon tried to steer the country in a conservative direction and away from federal control. Presentation created by Robert L. Martinez

2 Nixon tried to instill a sense of order into a nation still divided over the continuing Vietnam War.

3 Man on the Moon On July 20, 1969, one of America’s long-held dreams became a reality. Nearly 10 years after John F. Kennedy challenged American to put a person on the moon, astronaut Neil Armstrong climbed down the ladder of his lunar module and stepped onto the surface of the moon.

4 The Twenty-sixth Amendment was ratified in 1971, extending voting rights to 18 years or older. The draft of 18 year olds had a large influence on the passing of this amendment.

5 Nixon’s agenda was to decrease the size and influence of the federal government. Nixon believed that Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs, had given the federal government too much responsibility.

6 Nixon’s plan, known as New Federalism, was to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local governments. Under revenue sharing, state and local governments could spend their federal dollars however they saw fit within certain limitations.

7 At first Nixon cooperated with Congress, which Democrats controlled
At first Nixon cooperated with Congress, which Democrats controlled. Soon he refused to spend money voted by Congress on programs that he did not like. The Supreme Court ruled this action unconstitutional.

8 Beginning a policy of law and order, Nixon enlisted the CIA and IRS to harass his political “enemies” – liberals and dissidents.

9 Nixon hoped to bolster his political support, especially in the South, to ensure his re-election. He tried to slow school integration, but the Supreme Court ordered the administration to move more quickly. He also named conservatives to fill vacancies in the Supreme Court.

10 Nixon attempted to stop the integration of schools through busing
Nixon attempted to stop the integration of schools through busing. In 1971, the Supreme Court ruled in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education that school districts may bus students to other schools to end the pattern of all-black and all-white schools.

11 “ I’m not against any individual child. I am not a racist,
no matter what those high-and-mighty suburban liberals with their picket signs say. I just won’t have my children bused to some ….slum school, and I don’t want children from God knows where coming over here.” - A South Boston mother quoted in The School Bus Controversy,

12 Stagnation A stagnant economy trouble the country. By 1973, the inflation rate had doubled, and the unemployment rate was up 50%. The causes were high spending on the Vietnam War, growing foreign competition, and the difficulty of finding jobs for millions of new workers.

13 Another problem was reduced supply of and higher prices for oil and gasoline. Nixon’s efforts to lower prices did not work.

14 During the 60s, America received much of its petroleum from the oil-producing Middle East. Many of these countries belonged to a cartel called OPEC. During the 60s, OPEC gradually raised oil prices.

15 In 1973, the Yom Kippur War broke out, with Israel against Egypt and Syria. When the United States sent massive military aid to Israel, its longtime ally, the Arab OPEC nations responded by cutting off all oil sales to the United States.

16 When OPEC resumed selling its oil to the United States in 1974, the price had quadrupled. This sharp rise in oil prices only worsened the problem of inflation.

17 Henry Kissinger The architect of Nixon’s foreign policy was his adviser for national security affairs, Henry Kissinger. Kissinger introduced realpolitik, stating that foreign policy should be based on consideration of a nation’s power, not its philosophy or beliefs.

18 Detente Nixon and Kissinger introduced détente, a policy aimed at easing Cold War tensions.

19 End of the Vietnam War The president de-escalated America’s involvement in Vietnam and oversaw peace negotiations with North Vietnam.

20 In 1972, he visited Communist China. This reversed past U. S
In 1972, he visited Communist China. This reversed past U.S. policy, which had refused to formally recognize the Communist rulers there.

21 SALT Three months later, Nixon went to the Soviet Union. These moves were widely popular. With the Soviets, he signed the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT), which limited nuclear weapons.

22 Foreign policy triumphs helped Nixon easily win re-election.
Nixon Re-elected Foreign policy triumphs helped Nixon easily win re-election.

23 Watergate Nixon’s Downfall
President Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal forced him to resign from office.

24 The Watergate scandal was caused by an illegal break-in and attempts to block the investigation of it. The affair tested the idea that no one, not even the president, is above the law.

25 Nixon campaign aides were determined to win his re-election by any means necessary. They hired 5 men to raid & wiretap the Democratic party offices in a Washington, D.C., complex called Watergate.

26 Wire Taps Hoping to photograph files and place taps on phones, the men were caught. Rather than forcing those involved to resign, the administration tried to hide the link to the White House.

27 After Nixon’s re-election, the cover-up began to unravel
After Nixon’s re-election, the cover-up began to unravel. One of the burglars said that the White House was involved. Soon 3 top Nixon aides, who had been involved, resigned. In Senate hearings, televised live, one of them said that Nixon had known of the cover-up.

28 White House Tapes When it was revealed that White House meetings had been tape recorded, the Senate committee demanded the tapes. Nixon refused to turn them over. Court battles over the tapes lasted a year.

29 In March 1974, a grand jury charged 7 Nixon aides with obstruction of justice and perjury, or lying under oath. Nixon released more than 1,250 pages of taped conversations, but withheld conversations on some key dates.

30 Impeachment In July 1974, the Supreme Court ordered the White House to release the tapes. Three days later a House committee voted to impeach President Nixon. If the full House of Representatives approved, Nixon would go to trial in the Senate. If judged guilty there, he would be removed from office.

31 Nixon Resigns When the tapes were finally released, it was clear that Nixon had known of the cover-up. On August 8, 1974, he resigned but defiantly refused to admit guilt.

32 Accidental President Gerald Ford
Vice President Gerald Ford, a career Congressional leader from Michigan ascends to the position of President of the United States, after never have been elected to national office.

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