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How Can We Balance The Human Population With Our Natural Resources?

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Presentation on theme: "How Can We Balance The Human Population With Our Natural Resources?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How Can We Balance The Human Population With Our Natural Resources?

2 Why is Demography Important?
Demography: Study of the size, composition, and distribution of human population. What patterns do you see?

3 What is the Difference Between Developing & Developed Nations?
Developing Nations Lower Incomes (GNP) Agricultural Economy Higher population growth What countries fall under this category? Smaller ecological footprint Developed Higher Incomes Industrial Economy Lower population growth Better social support system What countries fall under this category? Larger ecological footprint

4 Population Change in Size
Three factors affect human population size: births, deaths, and migration Population Change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) Crude Birth Rate = # births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year Crude Death Rate = # deaths per1,000 people in a population in a given year

5 How fast is the world’s population growing?
% Population Change = (Births – Deaths)/1,000 X 100 (Births – Deaths)/10 The Rule of 70(DoublingTime) 70 / percent growth rate Example: In 2004 the growth rate was 1.2%. If this rate continues the population will double in 70/1.2 = 56 years What is the growth rate if it takes 20 years for a population to double?

6 Let’s determine growth rate and doubling time

7 What are Age Structure Diagrams?
The Number of people in young, middle and older age groups determines how fast populations grow or decline. The number of people under the age of 15 is the major factor determining a country’s future growth. Changes in the distribution of a country’s age groups have long- lasting economic and social impacts.

8 Looking Into A Crystal Ball!

9 Population changes in the US
After WWII fertility rate reached a peak( ) Baby Boomers! In 2002: legal/Illegal immigration accounted for 40% of US growth Currently close to 300 million Projected to reach 420 million by 2050 571 million by 2100

10 Demographic Transition

11 What is Family Planning?
Provides information about prenatal care Helps parents space births as desired Helps parents regulate family size Works best when reinforces customs and trends

12 How Can We Slow Population Growth?
Provide family planning Improve health care for infants, children and women Develop and implement national population policies Improve status of women Provide more education (especially to girls) Greatly reduce unsustainable patterns of production and consumption Sharply reduce poverty!

13 Population Dispersion

14 What is Urban Sprawl? Process of relocation of residences, shopping areas and work places from their traditional spots in cities to outlying areas (supported by the “love affair” with cars)

15 What are the effects of urban sprawl?
Environmental Depletion of resources (oil consumption) Air Pollution Water Pollution Loss of Agricultural Land Loss of Habitat and Wildlife Health Greater risk of fatal Accidents Higher incidents of obesity and high blood pressure Rise in diseases (asthma, cancer) Noise Pollution

16 What are the benefits of urban sprawl?
Cities are centers for education, jobs, culture technological and economic development More access to medical care and family planning Concentrating people in urban areas helps preserve wildlife

17 How do we make urban areas more livable and sustainable?
Prevent pollution and reduce waste Use energy efficiently Protecting biodiversity by preserving land Promoting urban gardens and farm markets Promoting “green” design of buildings

18 The Cairo Conference In September 1994, 15,000 leaders representing 179 nations met in Cairo, Egypt and for the first time in history reached a consensus! All nations agreed that population is an issue of crisis proportions that must be confronted forthrightly

19 Plan of Action Over the next 20 years:
Empowering women Education Health $17 billion needed each year until 2000 and additional amounts increasing to $21.7 billion by 2015 2/3 of funding would come from developing nations and the rest from developed nations

20 How is the plan going? Women and girls continue to face discrimination although many countries such as India, Bangladesh and African countries are encouraging education and have outlawed female genital mutilation HIV/AIDS epidemic has led to mortality in many countries Funding is the biggest problem: Developing countries have provided 75% of promised amounts Industrialized countries have provided less than half of their 1/3 Most shameful is that US Bush administration and Congress have acted to reduce their support Two billionaires Ted Turner and Bill Gates have stepped in to fill the gap

21 Millenium Development Goals
End Poverty & Hunger Universal Education Promote Gender Equality Improve Child Health Improve Maternal Health Combat HIV/AIDS Environmental Sustainability Global Partnership for Development

22 Status of MDG #1 The global economic crisis has slowed progress, but the world is still on track to meet the poverty reduction target Prior to the crisis, the depth of poverty had diminished in almost every region

23 MDG #2: Hope dims for universal education by 2015, even as many poor countries make tremendous strides Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia are home to the vast majority of children out of school Inequality thwarts progress towards universal education

24 MDG #3: For girls in some regions, education remains elusive
Poverty is a major barrier to education, especially among older girls In every developing region except the CIS, men outnumber women in paid employment Women are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employment Women are over-represented in informal employment, with its lack of benefits and security Top-level jobs still go to men — to an overwhelming degree Women are slowly rising to political power, but mainly when boosted by quotas and other special measures

25 MDG #4: Child deaths are falling, but not quickly enough to reach the target Revitalizing efforts against pneumonia and diarrhea, while bolstering nutrition, could save millions of children Recent success in controlling measles may be short-lived if funding gaps are not bridged

26 MDG #5: Inequalities in care during pregnancy are striking
Only one in three rural women in developing regions receive the recommended care during pregnancy Progress has stalled in reducing the number of teenage pregnancies, putting more young mothers at risk Poverty and lack of education perpetuate high adolescent birth rates Progress in expanding the use of contraceptives by women has slowed Use of contraception is lowest among the poorest women and those with no education Inadequate funding for family planning is a major failure in fulfilling commitments to improving women’s reproductive health

27 MDG #6: HIV/AIDS The spread of HIV appears to have stabilized in most regions, and more people are surviving longer Many young people still lack the knowledge to protect themselves against HIV Empowering women through AIDS education is indeed possible, as a number of countries have shown In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of HIV increases with wealth and among those living in urban areas Disparities are found in condom use by women and men and among those from the richest and poorest households

28 Malaria Production of insecticide-treated mosquito nets soars
Across Africa, expanded use of insecticide-treated bed nets is protecting communities from malaria Poverty continues to limit use of mosquito nets Global procurement of more effective antimalarial drugs continues to rise rapidly Children from the poorest households are least likely to receive treatment for malaria

29 MDG #7: The rate of deforestation shows signs of decreasing, but is still alarmingly high A decisive response to climate change is urgently needed The unparalleled success of the Montreal Protocol shows that action on climate change is within our grasp

30 Biodiversity The world has missed the 2010 target for biodiversity conservation, with potentially grave consequences Key habitats for threatened species are not being adequately protected The number of species facing extinction is growing by the day, especially in developing countries Overexploitation of global fisheries has stabilized, but steep challenges remain to ensure their sustainability

31 Water Supply The world is on track to meet the drinking water target, though much remains to be done in some regions Accelerated and targeted efforts are needed to bring drinking water to all rural households Safe water supply remains a challenge in many parts of the world With half the population of developing regions without sanitation, the 2015 target appears to be out of reach Disparities in urban and rural sanitation coverage remain daunting Improvements in sanitation are bypassing the poor

32 MDG #8: Developing countries gain greater access to the markets of developed countries Least developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural products Aid continues to rise despite the financial crisis, but Africa is short-changed Demand grows for information and communications technology Access to the World Wide Web is still closed to the majority of the world’s people Debt burdens ease for developing countries and remain well below historical levels

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