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What We Need to Know About Domestic Violence. Defined Emotional and/or physical abuse carried out with the intention, or perceived intention, of causing.

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Presentation on theme: "What We Need to Know About Domestic Violence. Defined Emotional and/or physical abuse carried out with the intention, or perceived intention, of causing."— Presentation transcript:

1 What We Need to Know About Domestic Violence

2 Defined Emotional and/or physical abuse carried out with the intention, or perceived intention, of causing pain or injury to another person; to control, intimidate, or dominate another in the context of an intimate relationship.

3 Behaviors include Physical abuse ranging from slapping, shoving, kicking to forcing, raping, and using a gun Verbal abuse including scaring, humiliating, and threatening Imprisonment, stalking, denying or preventing access to financial resources, shelter, or services.

4 Data Sources Data on DV is primarily dependent on victims reports Assumed to be vastly underreported and underestimated Victims do not report for a wide variety of reasons Data comes from national large sample surveys (NVAWS), health services (CDC), crime reporting (Dept of Justice)

5 Prevalence Women experience at least one assault in 1 in 4 marriages (McHugh, 1992) 34% of ever-married women have been assaulted (Frieze et al, 1980) 25% of all women report being assaulted at least once (Tjaden &Thoennes, 2000) 1.5 women are physically assaulted per year (CDC, 2000) 1 million women and 370,000 men are stalked (CDC, 2000)

6 41% of abused women sustain injuries A woman averages 7 assaults by the same partner; in on year – 3.4 separate assaults 5.3 million attacks on women each year (because many experience multiple attacks); 3.2 million assaults on men Of 4.8 million rapes and assaults, 2 million will result in injures, 500,000 will be hospitalized Prevalence (CDC, 2000)

7 Crime Statistics Crime statistics present lower rates because most people do not think of family violence as the crime it is; therefore they do not report DV to police Rates for violence against women are highest among 16-24 year olds Most common cause of injury in 15-44 year olds Women are the victim in 72% of murders and 85% of non-deadly violence 7 out of 10 rapes/sexual assaults are committed by men that women know 1300 deaths occur as a result of DV each year (Bureau of Justice, 2001)

8 Local Rates of Domestic Violence

9 Costs of DV (NVAWS, 1996) $4.1 billion in direct medical costs $1.8 million in indirect medical costs Ave. medical cost per rape $2084 (for those who actually seek treatment) Ave. medical cost per DV assault $2665 Updated costs estimated for 2003= $8.3 billion (Max et al. 2004) Estimations are poor; range is in medical costs

10 Criminal Justice Costs Productivity Costs No estimates of criminal costs of DV are available Police reports are generated in 1.5 million DV incidents each year (CDC, 2003) Nearly 79,000 arrests result in jail time 8 million work days lost (equivalent of 32,000 full time jobs) each year because of assaults and stalkings (CDC, 2003). $727.8 million lost in productivity

11 Leaving Escalates the Violence Most murders occur when a woman tries to leave an abusive partner (whether within months or years) (Dobash, 1977; Hart, 1988; Mahoney, 1991) Battering is 6 times more likely for separated women than married women (DoJ, 1997) Battering occurs 14 times more often for separated women than for those still living with their partner (Harlow, 1991)

12 Demographics on Batterers Greater tendency to report DV in lower socio-economic groups – less stigma and perceived losses (Okun, 1986) 82% of violent partners have lower occupational status than nonviolent men (Gelles, 1972) Abuse is highest among men with only high school education, and decreases with higher education levels (Gelles, 1972) Combined family income is significantly related to higher rates of assault on wives (DoJ, 1988)

13 When We Became Aware Domestic Violence as a field of practice knowledge and research is only about 40 years old. Even today, DV is often considered a private, family problem. Family preservation was placed ahead of physical protection of victims Policing DV was seen as getting involved in private family matters and encroaching on civil liberties

14 Perceptions about DV (DoJ OVW survey of 600 women, 2006) Only 6 of 10 women consider CV a crime 75% consider verbal assaults DV 100% consider physical assaults DV 1% consider sexual abuse DV (when not prompted) ; 90% did (when asked specifically) Patterns and regularity distinguish abuse from relational conflict, say surveyed women.

15 Myths Abound About why people batter: –Anger and frustration issues, stress, early or recent trauma or abuse, alcohol and substance use why people are victims: –Learned helplessness, passivity, dependency, psychological instability, masochism, provoke own abuse, susceptible to violent men THESE ARE MYTHS

16 People Batter Because They Can Abuse of family members, whether emotional, physical or both, is about power and control used to dominate them. Batterers believe they have the right, even the obligation, to be in charge, and will escalate violence to maintain that right.

17 About Abusers Violence is learned and under the control of the batterer Battering is a tactic, not a psychological problem Batterers know what to say and how to behave to get what they want (at home and in court) Batterers are often good neighbors, good employees, but manipulative and violent family members

18 About Women Victims Women endure an average of 5 years of battering More than half who leave their partner return Are juggling beliefs and feelings about whether: –the rewards outweigh the costs of the relationship –good alternatives to the relationship are known, available or possible –the investment of time, effort, and other resources on the relationship are worth giving up –pressure, internal or external, is being applied to stay or leave

19 Women Who Feel Trapped believe abuse by men is condoned or will not be punished fear showing their failure at maintaining a relationship fear retaliation from their partners or others fear the system will not help them feel to blame for the violence fear they cant provide for themselves or their children alone

20 Women Who Choose to Stay believe they can control or manage the violence to the degree necessary are highly invested in the relationship (children, home, status as a couple, finances, possession, access to things they want/need) are pressured by religious beliefs, extended family dynamics, needs for day-to-day living perceive costs to leave are too great have developed coping skills and resources

21 Methods for Coping with Abuse Monitor the partners behaviors Set and maintain boundaries Accumulate resources to enable survival Protect children Learn effective use of the system Consider and weigh alternatives Develop spiritual, relational, substance, or other escapes

22 Women Leave When Children are seriously affected Hope for the relationship is lost They are offered and believe in alternatives to their situation Resources become available for escape They can redefine their investment in the relationship They gain enough experience with the system to use it effectively

23 How Police are Affected Job requirements and training for effective police work Internalization of skills and training over time and with experience Poor public perception about challenges police face regularly in their jobs

24 The Job Trained to react quickly and control dangerous, volatile and unpredictable situations Always on – at work, at home, in community Become more tightly self-controlled but still hyper-vigilant in stressful situations

25 With time and experience Feel obliged to control situations even outside of work Coping with stress and violence becomes more instinctive, less managed and skillful Revert to controlling situations rather than dealing with them

26 Needs for Improved Police Effectiveness

27 Help each other recognize ineffective coping skills and increases in controlling behavior Require higher level of skills development and practice over time than average people To be able to transfer skills for handling challenges to authority to private life

28 To Better Represent What Police Work Is Improve public knowledge of actual police work through data collection and reporting Offer supporting evidence through organizational self- monitoring Provide protocols and policies Tell accurate stories about police challenges and responses (reduce piecemeal and sensationalized reporting)

29 To reconsider selection and training criteria Higher levels of formal education are correlated with lower levels of violence Ascertain predictors of success in police work over careers; use in selection Institute ongoing training in how coping skills and control issues change over the life-work span specifically for police Reward mentoring and coaching

30 Recommendations

31 Policies Adopt a policy for Domestic Violence by Police Officers, such as IACP Police Response to Violence Against Women Project

32 Practices Allow the DA to investigate calls for domestic violence committed by Pittsburgh Police officers

33 Programs Reinstitute the Law Enforcement Against Domestic Violence (LEAD-V) Includes: –DV Specialist Detective –DV Specialist Police Officer in the 5 Police Zones –DAs Office Domestic Violence Unit –WCS Legal Advocates

34 Tools Require the City of Pittsburgh to purchase digital cameras for use by police when responding to DV calls Require police to use these cameras

35 Training Require immediate In-Service Domestic Violence training for all Pittsburgh Police Officers Continue training annually for certification –To supplement the 20 hour training for new recruits –And certify all veteran police officers

36 Procedures Create with the DAs Office useful and simple protocols for evidence collection and investigation of DV cases

37 Track all incidents of DV that police respond to Generate reports for public use on the frequency and prevalence of DV in Pittsburgh Enable practice and policy assessments using reliable and factual data Reports

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