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Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology

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1 Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology

2 THE HUMAN BODY Anatomy Ana- up, temos/tomos- cutting Study of the
Dissections Study of the structures in the body Physiology Physis- nature, logos- study Study of the functions of the body’s parts

3 Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
The form of each body structure allows that structure to carry out its specific task Function follows form, and form follows function Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form

4 Body Planes and Regions

5 The Anatomical Position
All of the following assume that the body is in the anatomical position Standing (or lying) facing front (or up) Feet together pointed forward Palms up, thumbs pointing away from the body.

6 The body is subdivided into cavities based on position or anatomical location:
Axial Portion of Skeleton The Head/ Skull Cranial Facial (orbital, middle ear, nasal, oral) The vertebral column The Trunk/ rib cage Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

7 Body Cavities: Cranial Vertebral Thoracic Pleural (ea. houses a lung)
Pericardial (encloses heart) Abdominal Pelvic Scrotal


9 Appendicular Portion of Skeleton
The right and left upper limbs (arms) The right and left lower limbs (legs) *Includes shoulder & hip bones that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton

10 Body Surfaces Rear—Posterior/ Dorsal Front—Anterior/ Ventral

11 Body Planes--Just as there are three planes in space (3 dimensions) the body has 3 spatial planes
Coronal or Frontal Splits body into anterior and posterior halves Midsagittal Splits the body into right and left halves Sagittal- any cut within that plane Transverse or Horizontal Divides the body into upper and lower halves

12 Name that body plane!

13 Skull—section? Heart—section ? Name this head section!


15 *These are based on 2 body areas/parts in relation to each other*
Location Reference Words: *These are based on 2 body areas/parts in relation to each other* 1. Superior = body parts above other parts 2. Inferior = body parts below other parts

16 Cranial = body parts near the head
4. Caudal (towards the tail) = body parts located near the sacral region of the spinal column (or near the tail bone)

17 5. Medial = body parts located near the middle or midline of the body
6. Lateral = body parts located away from the midline or middle of the body

18 Proximal = body parts close to the point of reference
8. Distal = body parts away from the point of reference

19 Superficial = toward the surface of the body
Deep = farther into the body Plantar = on or towards the sole of the foot Palmar = on or towards the palm of the hand

20 13. Anterior (Ventral)- towards the front
14. Posterior (Dorsal)- towards the back

21 Directional Movement Reference Words:
Abduction = to move (an upper or lower limb) away from the mid-line of the body Adduction = to move (upper or lower limb) towards the mid-line of the body Extension = straighten a limb Flexion = bend a limb

22 Body Regions We’ll be examining body region terms in lab Abdominal
acromial Antebrachial Antecubital Axillary Brachial Carpal Celiac Cephalic Gluteal Pectoral pedal examples

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