Chemical Bonds Today we will learn about ionic bonds –Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions
Why do atoms bond? Why DONT some atoms bond? –The noble gases – why? Why do other atoms bond, then? –They are more chemically stable when bonded
How do atoms bond? The octet rule –The octet rule, or rule of eight, says that an atom will strive for a full s and p subshell –Atoms will either lose or gain electrons to get 8 in the outer shell –NOTE: when an atom loses or gains electrons, its nucleus remains the same – only the outer electron shell has changed!!!
Bonding and energy changes Energy is the ability to do work Stability is a measure of inability to do work –So, the lower the energy, the more stable something is! When atoms bond, the process favors stability (lower energy). Things will never go from a stable to an unstable state on their own!
Electrons, bonding, and IONS When they do this, they get a CHARGE, because protons (+) and electrons (-) are no longer equal. They are now IONS Positive and negative IONS come together and balance each other out in IONIC BONDS.
Cations and Anions Remember: + + A plussy cat An antion
Ionic Bonding Sodium wants to GIVE an electron, Chlorine wants to GET an electron.
Ionic Bonding The low ionization energy of sodium and the high electronegativity of chlorine is one reason this works so well.
Naming ions Monatomic ions = –One atom ions Naming monatomic ions –To name positive ions, just add the word ion Example: Magnesiums ion is Magnesium ion –To name negative ions, drop the last part of the word, and add -ide ion Oxygens ion is called oxide
Naming monatomic ions Rubidium loses an electron to become Rb + Rubidium ion Calcium loses two electrons to become Ca 2+ Calcium ion Chlorine gains an electron to become Cl - Chloride Oxygen gains two electrons to become O 2- Oxide Nitrogen loses three electrons to become N 3- Nitride
Compounds made of two monatomic ions These are called BINARY COMPOUNDS You always put the positive part first and the negative part last: Na + + Cl - NaCl Names = name of the positive ion + name of the negative ion: Sodium Chloride
Back to ions: Writing Ionic Formulas The nomenclature (naming system): 1.Write the symbols for the ions side by side. Write the cation first. Al 3+ O 2- 2.Find the lowest common multiple that will make the charges on each ion cancel out Al 3+ O 2- 3.Check the subscripts for the lowest whole number ratio of ions. Then write the formula. Al 2 O 3
d-block The d-block (yo) has its own rules –Metals in the d-block have variable charges –All d-block metals must get a ROMAN NUMERAL to indicate the charge –EXAMPLE: copper (I) chloride is made of Cu 1+ and Cl - –EXAMPLE: copper (II) chloride is made of Cu 2+ and Cl - –Dont use roman numerals if you dont have to
Examples Write the formulas for –Tin(II) iodide –Cobalt(III) chloride
Working backward If you are given the formula you need to calculate the charge of the d-block metal. Assume the anion did not change its charge (they are very consistent) Example: FeO, to write the name we need the charge of iron.
Polyatomic ions When two or more ions are clumped together it is a polyatomic ions. They usually end with –ates or -ites
Nomenclature of Oxyanions They are not standard! –Example Sulfate vs Phosphate Nomenclature examples –Perchlorate –ChlorateNitrate –ChloriteNitrite –hypochlorite
Writing formulas for compounds with polyatomic ions Polyatomic ions should ALWAYS be treated like a LUMP. Dont ever break it up! If you need more than one polyatomic ion to balance a charge, use PARENTHESES ( )
Polyatomic ions Naming compounds that contain polyatomic ions: –The steps are the same: –the name of the first ion + the name of the second: NH 4 + = ammonium ion (polyatomic) Cl - = chloride ion (monatomic) NH 4 Cl = ammonium chloride
Example Write the formulas for: potassium perchlorate tin(IV) sulfate Iron(II) chromate ammonium sulfate
Ionic vs. Metallic bonds In an IONIC BOND, the electrons of one atom (that wants to lose electrons) are donated to the electrons of another atom (that wants to gain electrons). The charges on each ion balance each other out and equal ZERO. In a METALLIC BOND, all the atoms are the same (all copper, for example) and the electrons dont belong to any one atom. They move around a lot – thats why electricity is conducted.
Metallic Bonds A sea of mobile outer electrons. Low ionization energies means the atoms dont hold electrons well.