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World War I 1914-1918.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I 1914-1918."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 Causes Of World War I: complex and varied, but it all comes down to the…
ilitarism lliances ationalism mperialism ssassination ompetition

3 Militarism Great Britain--> premier navy in Europe
Germany-->most powerful army Kinda like Athens and Sparta… and you remember how that turned out GB and Germany rush to outdo each other militarily Other Euro powers worry and increase military Military leaders exert influence on political leaders Europe ready for war Arms race-->defensive and paranoid Seek strength in numbers, so powers form . . .

4 Alliances Bismarck worked HARD to keep peace by encouraging alliances
Why is Bismarck a “peace-nik?” Bismarck worked hard to build Germany into a mighty nation and saw war as a potential “un-doer!” On eve of Great War--Europe divided into two powerful Alliances Triple Entente: Britain, France and Russia from earlier Entente Cordiale: Brit and Fr and later agreement btw Brit and Russia Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria and Italy Mutual defense pacts--> aggression to one=aggression to all

5 The Alliance System All major European powers enter into an arms race
After unifying Germany in 1871, Bismarck saw that Germany was vulnerable Trapped between France and Russia in a two-front war Formed alliances to prevent Germany from becoming isolated Three Emperor’s League with Austria and Russia in 1873 Dual Alliance with Austria in 1879 Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy in 1882 All major European powers enter into an arms race

6 The Alliance System To assure Britain, Bismarck did not build a large navy In 1888 Kaiser Wilhelm I died, grandson Wilhelm II becomes Kaiser Queen Victoria’s grandson Wanted Germany to be a Great Power like Britain with large navy and colonial empire Fired Bismarck in 1890

7 The Alliance System Germany refuses to renew alliance with Russia
Russia allies with France in 1894 France invests in Russian industrialization Kaiser Wilhelm II orders construction of large navy British get worried Germany industrializing at faster rate since 1871 Britain and Germany in naval arms race Each country builds more battleships Germany meddles in British colonial affairs Boer War in South Africa ( )

8 The Alliance System Britain spent late 19th century in “splendid isolation” No alliances—no reason for them at the time Rise of Germany changes attitudes Britain and France sign Entente Cordiale in 1904 Not quite an alliance but settles colonial disputes Moroccan Crises (1905, 1911) France tries to take over Morocco but Germany interferes British intervention prevents war Britain and Russia enter into same agreement in 1907 Britain signs alliance with Japan in 1902

9 Nationalism 19th c.  rise of nationalistic spirit across Europe
Countries see own sovereignty and superiority as imptnt Yet not all seeking independence had achieved sov. Slavics in Balkans and in Austro-Hungary Pan-Slavism: Nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples, encouraged by Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes and Croats  single political entity in SE Europe Russia is Slavs’ big brother Nationalism --> tendency to focus on own state’s interest, not interest of international community, which led to . . .

10 Imperialism How so? As European powers added foreign lands to their holdings--> inevitable that these spots would become HOT! Argue over the land--> 1905 and 1911 France and Germany almost go to war over Morocco. Brutality of new imperialism led nations to denounce each other--> increase tensions

11 Assassination The spark!
Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia—Austrian province) on June 28, 1914 Heir to the Austrian throne Assassins part of Serbian terrorist group, the Black Hand Austria issue ultimatum to Serbia Germany gives “Blank Check” to Austria To act against Serbia Russia backs Serbia

12 World War I The July Crisis
Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia on July 24, 1914 A list of 15 demands for Serbia in dealing with assassins Serbia agrees to all but one; Austria planned it that way Russia threatens Austria not to attack Serbia Germany threatens Russia not to attack Austria

13 World War I The July Crisis
Austria declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914 Russia and Austria mobilize Germany threatens Russia not to mobilize Germany declares war on Russia on August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on France on August 3, 1914

14 World War I The July Crisis Britain had been staying neutral
Britain tries to mediate between Austria and Russia throughout crisis But no one is listening Germany plans to go through Belgium to attack France Part of Schlieffen Plan Britain threatens Germany not to march through Belgium Britain declares war on Germany on August 4, 1914

15 Competition Overall competitive nature of Europe at this time—militarily, imperialistically, nationally.

16 The Balkans The Eastern Question
What happens after the Ottoman Empire falls apart? Between 1878 and 1913, Ottoman Empire loses all of its territories in the Balkans Austria takes Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878 Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania, Montenegro gain independence Russia tries to gain influence in the Balkans in 1878 but stopped at the Congress of Berlin

17 The Balkans The Balkan Wars (1912, 1913)
Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Bulgaria attack the Ottoman Empire To gain more territory To get them out of the Balkans Serbia becomes a threat to Austria Serbia wants to extend into Austrian territory Serbia allied with Russia in secret alliance


19 World War I The Central Powers The Triple Entente (Allies)
Germany, Austria, the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire enters alliance with Germany in October 1914 The Triple Entente (Allies) Britain, France, Russia Italy joins Triple Entente in 1915 in secret alliance World War I begins

20 World War I The Western Front
Germany invades Belgium on August 3, 1914 Schlieffen Plan Invade and defeat France quickly through Belgium (6 weeks) Then redeploy and concentrate on war v. Russia Belgium puts up more resistance than expected Buys time for the British to move into France British and French stop Germans outside Paris-Stalemate develops Beginning of trench warfare Lasts for 3 years

21 The Schlieffen Plan diagram

22 The Top 5 German Excuses for Schlieffen Plan Failure:
5. Hired a failed Austrian artist with a funny moustache to draw the maps. 4. Those Belgians didn’t “waffle” after all.  3. Legendary orders "Last man on the right should brush his sleeve in the English Channel" mistakenly heard as "...brush his TEETH...." 2. Superior German planning, equipment and personnel no match for legendary, unsurpassed French panic. And the number one reason why the Schlieffen Plan failed: Hard to take seriously any plan that starts with the word "Schlieffen"!

23 Actual reasons for failure!
Belgians’ resistance to G invasions slowed ‘em down Left of German line failed to lure Fr. Into A+L and destroy it Russians mobilized quickly in the E., requiring G’s to send divisions there Fr. and Br. Counterattack at Battle of the Marne halted G invasion

24 World War I The Eastern Front Germany invades Russia in 1914
Russian army no match for Germany Germany takes Poland, the Baltic coast, and western Russia The war becomes unpopular in Russia Low morale in the army and shortage of supplies in the cities

25 World War I War expands outside Europe Africa Asia Middle East
British take German colonies Asia Japan takes German colonies in the Pacific and German interests in China Middle East British try to invade Ottoman Empire in Gallipoli campaign in 1915 British and French take Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia

26 World War I Total war effort: a new form of warfare
New weapons introduced Tanks, airplanes, submarines, machine guns But war fought with old tactics Total war effort: a new form of warfare Entire economy devoted to the war effort More women work in factories to make up for men going to war Mass media allows effective use of war propaganda Burgfrieden (civil peace):

27 Total War Effort

28 TWE

29 TWE: Propaganda

30 TWE: Propaganda “Think of your children!”

31 Burgfrieden Reichstag-declared.
Duration of the war, all pre-war conflicts among Germans would be set aside. Citizens would unite in the interest of defending the country. Social Democrats/Women’s rights advocates/ labor leaders At first good, but then support waivered. Food shortages, limited expression, anti-war sentiment.

32 World War I Russia gets out of the war War going disastrously
Czar Nicholas II unable to provide leadership Czar Nicholas II overthrown in February Revolution (March 1917) Provisional government replaces monarchy But continues fighting Bolsheviks under Lenin gain control in October Revolution (November 1917) Promise “Peace, Land, and Bread” Sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918 R. yields Poland, Baltic States, Ukraine, Finland War indemnity. $6 B marks

33 World War I The United States neutral for most of the war
Submarine warfare German submarines target British shipping Sometimes neutral ships sunk Lusitania sunk in Americans on board US makes Germany promise to restrict submarine warfare. Germans agree, but then reneged.

34 World War I The US declares war on Germany in 1917
Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 President Woodrow Wilson wants US to “make the world safe for democracy” US tips the balance on the side of the Allies American troops, money, and supplies give advantage to the Allies

35 World War I Losses in the war lead to revolution in Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates on November 9, 1918 Monarchy replaced by a republic Germany calls for an armistice on November 11, 1918 World War I comes to an end Estimated 10,000,000 deaths from the war Most destructive war in history Destroys European assumptions of progress

36 The Treaty of Versailles
Representatives from Allied nations and Germany meet in Paris Wilson represents the United States and tries to make peace The Fourteen Points National self-determination Open agreements League of Nations Arms reductions Free Trade

37 The Treaty of Versailles
Britain (George) and France (Clemenceau) don’t buy Wilson’s Fourteen Points They want revenge on Germany Britain and France make a harsh peace with Germany Germany takes full responsibility for the war Stripped all of its colonies Occupy part of German territory. Fr gets A-L back. Ger=No AF; restricted army and navy Impose heavy reparations (132 B gold marks=$33B) Germans feel angry and cheated

38 The Treaty of Versailles
End of World War I redraws the map of Europe Austria-Hungary dismembered into new states Ottoman Empire dissolved New republic in Turkey Middle East divided between Britain and France Poland reappears as a republic Yugoslavia comes into existence Empires gone: Ottoman, Austria-Hungary, Russia, German

39 The League of Nations Wilson compromises on Fourteen Points to get support for the League of Nations Treaty of Versailles had to be ratified by the US US Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 US does not join the League of Nations League of Nations has no credibility

40 Summary Between 1870 and 1914 European powers enter into alliances
Arms race makes Europe highly unstable A series of decisions led Europe into World War I Allies impose a harsh peace on Germany World War I the most destructive war in history

41 Impact of War 10,000,000 dead. 20,000,000+ wounded
$330 Billion total cost European economy in shambles Euro govs in debt w/ no way to repay—esp to USA Psychologically scarring. Doubts and fears reflected in art, writing and philosophy of early 20th c. 20th century was to be a century of prosperity and progress shakes belief in humanity, order and reason Not the “war to end all wars.”

42 The Alliance System All major European powers enter into an arms race
After unifying Germany in 1871, Bismarck saw that Germany was vulnerable Trapped between France and Russia in a two-front war Formed alliances to prevent Germany from becoming isolated Three Emperor’s League with Austria and Russia in 1873 Dual Alliance with Austria in 1879 Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy in 1882 All major European powers enter into an arms race

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