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What is a phrase? A phrase consists of a group of related words that functions as a part of speech. A phrase does not express complete meaning on its own as it lacks a subject and/or a predicate.
Examples of phrases Gandalf is a man of great wisdom. Harry fell asleep holding his book. The beast slithered into the water. Who will examine the rude patient? Adjectival phrase Adverbial phrase Prepositional phrase Noun phrase
What is a clause? A clause contains a subject and a predicate. There are two types of clauses: 1) Independent clause 2) Subordinate clause
Independent clause Subordinate clause The dog barked all night. We did not get the angle wings paint. Observation The independent clause communicates a complete thought. Because the dog barked all night. When we asked for angle wings paint. Observation The subordinate (dependent) clause does not communicate a complete thought.
A sentence has a subject and a predicate. The subject states whom or what the sentence is about. The predicate describes the action or states the condition of the subject. Example: The typical hobbit is three feet tall. Sub. Pred.
Four categories of sentences A declarative sentence is used to make a statement. Example: I do not eat spicy food. An interrogative sentence is used when asking a question. Example: Will you be comfortable here?
An imperative sentence is used to either give an order or make a request. Example: 1) Alec, please stop running. 2) Watch out! (When the command or request is strong, an exclamation mark is after the word or phrase.) An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feelings (and ends with an exclamation point). Example: 1) I passed that test with an A!
Simple subjects and simple predicates The simple subject is the noun or pronoun that states whom or what the sentence is about (without modifiers/descriptive words). Example: 1) I want to live forever. (The subject is I) The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that describes the action or states the condition of the subject. Example: 1) Hobbits love cakes. (The predicate is love.)
Compound subjects A compound subject is a simple subject that consists of more than one nouns or pronouns. Example: 1) Chocolate, chocolate drinks, and chocolate fondue are Compound subject my favourite snacks.
Compound Predicates A compound predicate is a simple predicate that consists of more than one verbs or verb phrases. Example: The Nazgul hovered, snorted, and peered into the trees. compound predicate
Complete subjects The complete subject is who or what the sentence is about plus all the modifiers [descriptive words]. Example: The big, fiery, angry Balrog lashed out at Gandalf. Complete subject
Complete Predicates The complete predicate consists of the main verb + modifiers of that verb. Example: The Nazgul hid behind a cloud. complete predicate
What is the difference between the compound and the complex predicate ? The Nazgul hovered, snorted, and peered into the trees. compound predicate The Nazgul hid behind a cloud. complete predicate The compound predicate consists of two or more verbs. The complete predicate consists of the verb and all its modifiers.
The simple sentence The simple sentence contains one independent clause (no subordinate clauses are included). The simple sentence may have Phrases Compound subject Compound predicate
Examples of simple sentences Balrogs, dragons and Nazguls attacked Gandalf. Gandalf studied the battlefield and then launched an attack. Compound subject Compound predicate
Compound sentences A compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses joined in one of three ways.
How are compound sentences joined? My neighbours played loud music into the early morning hours; therefore, I did not get enough sleep. In this example, you can see that independent clauses can be joined by a semi-colon + a conjunctive adverb + a comma.
How are compound sentences joined? John failed the exam last June, and now he has to do the resit during his summer vacation. Another way to join independent clauses is with a comma + a coordinating conjunction (and, but, nor, or, for, yet)
How are compound sentences joined? I had a great day; I got 50% discount on all my purchases. Independent clauses can be joined by a semicolon.
Complex sentences A complex sentence consists of an independent clause joined by one or more subordinate clause(s).
Examples of complex sentences While we were speeding to the hospital, Frank died. The underlined segment is the subordinate clause. The independent clause is in red.
Examples of complex sentences As my grandmother always said, we cannot achieve our goals unless we are prepared to work hard. The underlined segments are subordinate clauses. The segment in red is the independent clause.
Examples of complex sentences The woman who is wearing that red dress is my grandmother. The subordinate class is the underlined portion. The independent clause is the segments in red.
The compound-complex sentence A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clause(s).
Examples of compound-complex sentences I will give you a list of prospective candidates who applied for the job, but you need to identify the suitable one. The segments in red are independent clauses. The underlined portion is the subordinate clause. But is a connector.
Examples of compound-complex sentences Andre, my brother who lives in Canada, is coming for a vacation, even though it is only for a few days. The segments in red is the independent clause. The underlined segments are the subordinate clauses.
Exercise Write a paragraph demonstrating the use of more three of the sentence structures discussed in this section.
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