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On the Brink of Civil War

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Presentation on theme: "On the Brink of Civil War"— Presentation transcript:

1 On the Brink of Civil War
The Union Torn Apart:

2 Missouri Compromise

3 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848

4 Compromise of 1850

5 The Debaters Henry Clay & Daniel Webster John C. Calhoun
Stephen Douglas

6 Henry Clay’s defense of Compromise
Mr. President, what is a compromise? It is a work of mutual concession - an agreement in which there are reciprocal stipulations - a work in which, for the sake of peace and concord, one party abates his extreme demands in consideration of an abatement of extreme demands by the other party: it is a measure of mutual concession - a measure of mutual sacrifice.

7 Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state
N. Mex., Az., Utah, Nev. Territories – no mention of slavery Slave trade - but not slavery forbidden in Wash. D.C. Fugitive Slave Act Postpones Civil War another decade


9 Fugitive Slave Act Required citizens to assist in arrest of slaves
Denied slaves jury trial Commissioners handle the cases (paid $5 if alleged fugitive released; $10 if given to claimant)

10 Fugitive Slave Act

11 Underground Railroad: Peaks 1850-1860

12 Manifest Destiny: The Role of the Railroad & Stephen Douglas
Wanted RR terminus to be in Chicago Presidential ambitions Nebraska as free state never a question Democrats – Popular Sovereignty

13 Kansas-Nebraska Act 2 New Territories: Kansas & Nebraska created west of Iowa & Missouri Issue of slavery to be decided in new territories by popular sovereignty Overrides Missouri Compromise


15 Efforts to sway the vote in Kansas
New England Emigrant Aid society sends northerners south Abolitionist Beecher “Beecher Bibles” rifles Rumors spread 20,000 northerners moving south Southerners (Missouri) flood across the border to vote 2 elections won by pro-slavery side

16 Kansas legislation & Abolitionist Response
Penalties for speaking against slavery Assisting fugitives – death penalty or 10 years hard labor North calls “Bogus” laws Northerners set up Free State Legislature in Topeka Pres. Pierce only recognizes Pro-slavery Kansas govt.

17 Prelude to Violence Most “Kansans” not interested in slavery issue
Many northerners “Free Soil” – meant land for free whites – not concerned with morality issues of slavery Congressional investigation found the elections of ’54 & ’55 to be fraudulent Federal govt. continues to recognize slave govt. of Kansas

18 Bleeding Kansas


20 Caning of Charles Sumner: The Crime against Kansas

21 John Brown & sons – Kill pro-slavers at Pottawatomie Creek

22 Dred Scott Decision 1857 Taken to Illinois & Wisconsin – Free states
11 years in courts Supreme Court says that Scott, a slave, is not a citizen, ergo not eligible to bring suit in Federal Court Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (5th amendment property rights)

23 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858

24 Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA October 1859
John Brown led raid on Federal Arsenal Plan – start an armed insurrection to free slaves Captured, tried, convicted of murder, treason, inciting slave rebellion executed Martyr/villain

25 Election of 1860: Final turning point for North and South

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