5 The Debaters Henry Clay & Daniel Webster John C. Calhoun Stephen Douglas
6 Henry Clay’s defense of Compromise Mr. President, what is a compromise? It is a work of mutual concession - an agreement in which there are reciprocal stipulations - a work in which, for the sake of peace and concord, one party abates his extreme demands in consideration of an abatement of extreme demands by the other party: it is a measure of mutual concession - a measure of mutual sacrifice.
7 Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state N. Mex., Az., Utah, Nev. Territories – no mention of slaverySlave trade - but not slavery forbidden in Wash. D.C.Fugitive Slave ActPostpones Civil War another decade
15 Efforts to sway the vote in Kansas New England Emigrant Aid society sends northerners southAbolitionist Beecher “Beecher Bibles” riflesRumors spread 20,000 northerners moving southSoutherners (Missouri) flood across the border to vote2 elections won by pro-slavery side
16 Kansas legislation & Abolitionist Response Penalties for speaking against slaveryAssisting fugitives – death penalty or 10 years hard laborNorth calls “Bogus” lawsNortherners set up Free State Legislature in TopekaPres. Pierce only recognizes Pro-slavery Kansas govt.
17 Prelude to Violence Most “Kansans” not interested in slavery issue Many northerners “Free Soil” – meant land for free whites – not concerned with morality issues of slaveryCongressional investigation found the elections of ’54 & ’55 to be fraudulentFederal govt. continues to recognize slave govt. of Kansas
20 Caning of Charles Sumner: The Crime against Kansas
21 John Brown & sons – Kill pro-slavers at Pottawatomie Creek
22 Dred Scott Decision 1857 Taken to Illinois & Wisconsin – Free states 11 years in courtsSupreme Court says that Scott, a slave, is not a citizen, ergo not eligible to bring suit in Federal CourtMissouri Compromise unconstitutional (5th amendment property rights)
24 Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA October 1859 John Brown led raid on Federal ArsenalPlan – start an armed insurrection to free slavesCaptured, tried, convicted of murder, treason, inciting slave rebellionexecutedMartyr/villain
25 Election of 1860: Final turning point for North and South