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Personality Who are you ? Who am I ? Who are we ? See Ch. 11 in Text.

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1 Personality Who are you ? Who am I ? Who are we ? See Ch. 11 in Text


3 Personality Personality refers to unique differences
An individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations Two key components Personality refers to unique differences Personality is presumed to be stable & enduring

4 Psychodynamic Theories
Psychodynamic theories see behavior as a product of psychological forced within the individual, often outside conscious awareness Five propositions common to all psychodynamic theories Much of mental life is unconscious Mental processes such as emotions, motivations & thought may conflict with one another Early childhood experiences strongly affect personality development Our mental representation of ourselves and others guides our interactions with others Development of personality involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive urges


6 Sigmund Freud Best known of psychodynamic theorists
Freud was first to stress the unconscious The unconscious is all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are normally not aware Freud’s ideas form the basis for psychoanalysis

7 Psychoanalytic Approach
Developed by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation - the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind Keywords: psychoanalytic approach, unconscious motivation Graphics: picture of Freud pg. 420 Myers

8 Structure of Personality

9 Psychoanalytic Approach
Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego Information which can easily be made conscious Thoughts, feelings, urges and other information that is difficult to bring to awareness in your immediate Rational, planning, mediating dimension of personality Moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality Irrational, illogical, impulsive

10 Conscious - all things we are aware of at any given moment
Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego Keywords: conscious, preconscious, unconscious Graphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury

11 Preconscious - everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness
Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego Keywords: conscious, preconscious, unconscious Graphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury

12 Unconscious - inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives
Superego Preconscious Id Ego Keywords: conscious, preconscious, unconscious Graphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury

13 Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind
Id - instinctual drives present at birth does not distinguish between reality and fantasy operates according to the pleasure principle Ego - develops out of the id in infancy understands reality and logic mediator between id and superego Superego - develops over time internalization of society’s moral standards responsible for guilt Keywords: id Graphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury

14 Id Collection of unconscious urges and desired that continually seek expression Operates according to the Pleasure Principle i.e. seeks immediate pleasure and to avoid pain Operates entirely in the unconscious mind

15 Ego Mediates between reality, conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id) Operates according to the Reality Principle Operates at the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels

16 Superego Ego Ideal Conscience
The social and parental standards that have been internalized Conscience Our sense of morality Ego Ideal The standard of what one would like to be We are not born with the superego, but it develops over time Operates at the conscious, preconscious & unconscious levels

17 Freud’s Development of Personality
Freud believed that personality development is the result of various ways in which the sexual instinct (also called the libido) is satisfied during the course of life There are several stages, each focusing on different bodily areas These stages are called the psychosexual stages

18 Defense Mechanisms Anxiety is produced when the ego cannot satisfy the demands of the id in a way acceptable to the superego This anxiety causes feelings of uneasiness and worry Ego may employ any of a number of defense mechanisms to protect the conscious mind from this anxiety

19 Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Identification
Refusal to acknowledge a painful reality Repression Unpleasant thoughts are excluded from consciousness Projection Attributing one’s feelings, motives, wishes on/to others Identification Taking on traits of others to avoid feeling incompetent Regression Reverting to childlike behavior

20 Defense Mechanisms Intellectualization Reaction Formation Displacement
Thinking about stressful problems in an abstract way to detach oneself from them Reaction Formation Expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are opposite of true feelings Displacement Shift repressed motives from an original object to a substitute object Sublimation Redirecting repressed motives and feelings into socially acceptable activities

21 Defense Mechanisms--Activity
Choose Five (5) of the mechanisms and prepare brief scenarios representing each. Depth 2-3 sentences…just be sure to fully explain the response/reaction to clearly connect w/mechanism. Denial Repression Projection Identification Regression Intellectualization Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

22 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Were Freud’s theories the “best of his time” or were they simply incorrect? Current research contradicts many of Freud’s specific ideas Development does not stop in childhood Slips of the tongue are likely competing “nodes” in memory network Dreams may not be unconscious drives and wishes

23 Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory
Theories must explain observations and offer testable hypotheses Few Objective Observations Few Hypotheses Freud’s theories based on his recollections & interpretations of patients’ free associations, dreams & slips of the tongue Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits

24 Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories
Culture-bound ideas Freud made no connection between women’s subordinate status in society and their sense of inferiority Psychodymanic theories are largely untestable in any scientific way

25 Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories
Carl Jung: Collective Unconscious Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology Karen Horney: Focus on Security Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Development THEN… HUMANISTS: Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs Carl Rogers: Person-Centered Perspective Keywords: Karen Horney, object relations theories, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung Graphics: pics. of Horney pg. 484, Adler pg. 485 of Hockenbury, pic. of Jung pg. 425 Hockenbury, pic. of Erikson pg.407 Hockenbury

26 Carl Jung Shared Freud’s emphasis on unconscious processes
Personal Unconscious That part of the unconscious mind containing an individuals thoughts and feelings Collective Unconscious The part of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species

27 Archetypes Ideas/categories in the collective unconscious
Examples of archetypes Persona Our public self Anima Female archetype as expressed in male personality Animus Male archetype as expressed in female personality

28 Jung’s five (5) main archetypes:
The Self: the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of individuation The Shadow: the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with, but possesses nonetheless The Anima: the feminine image in a man's psyche or The Animus: the masculine image in a woman's psyche The Persona: how we present to the world, usually protects the Ego from negative images(acts like a mask)

29 Anima Projection: The unindividuated man identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically masculine. He develops these potentialities and to some extent integrates their unconscious influences into his conscious personality. However, he does not recognize qualities that are symbolically feminine as part of his own personality but rather projects them onto women.

30 Anima Projection: The unindividuated man identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically masculine. He will project his anima—those particular characteristics and potentialities that are significant components of his personal unconscious and therefore carry a special emotional charge—onto a few women for whom he will then feel a strong and compelling emotion (usually positive but occasionally negative). Infatuation (an instant, powerful attraction for a woman about whom he knows little) is one of the signs of anima projection, as is a compulsive possessiveness.


32 Animus Projection: The unindividuated woman identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically feminine. She develops these potentialities and to some extent integrates their unconscious influences into her conscious personality. However, she does not recognize qualities that are symbolically masculine as part of her own personality but rather projects them onto men.

33 Animus Projection: The unindividuated woman identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically feminine. She will project her animus—those particular characteristics and potentialities that are significant components of her personal unconscious and therefore carry a special emotional charge—onto a few men for whom she will then feel a strong and compelling emotion (usually positive but occasionally negative). Infatuation (an instant, powerful attraction for a man about whom she knows little) is one of the signs of animus projection, as is a compulsive possessiveness.


35 Anima Possession: Since the unindividuated man has not consciously developed any of his symbolically feminine qualities (e.g. emotion, need for relatedness), his personality is apt to be taken over or "possessed" by these qualities at times, so that his emotional behavior and relationships may be acted out in childish and immature ways that are apparent to others but not to him.

36 Animus Possession: Since the unindividuated woman has not consciously developed any of her symbolically masculine qualities (e.g. logic, leadership, need for independence), her personality is apt to be taken over or "possessed" by these qualities at times, so that she appears opinionated, argumentative, or domineering to others, though she will not think of herself that way.

37 Anima/Animus Integration: We can avoid anima/animus possession and withdraw projections by integrating the contrasexual archetype into consciousness, realizing we are cutting off our human potential by recognizing and developing only those symbolic qualities that match the sex of our bodies. Androgyny is symbolized in narratives through achievement of a special bond (frequently sexual union/marriage) between the ego-bearer and the anima/animus figure. Integration of the Anima/Animus is often termed Androgyny.

38 Attitude Types Extraverts Introverts
Focus on external world & social life Introverts Focus on internal thoughts & feelings Jung felt that everyone had both qualities, but one is usually dominant

39 Personality Types Rational individuals Irrational individuals
People who regulate their actions through thinking and feeling Irrational individuals People who base their actions on perceptions, either through their senses or intuition

40 TYPE A: “THE competitor/achiever“ TYPE B: “THE SOCIALIZER/dreamer”
Personality Types TYPE A: “THE competitor/achiever“ TYPE B: “THE SOCIALIZER/dreamer” TYPE C: “the detailed designer“ TYPE D: “the reticent, yet reliable ”

41 TYPE A: “Competitor/Achiever”. Risk taker. Very independent
TYPE A: “Competitor/Achiever” * Risk taker * Very independent * Direct, to the point (blunt): may alienate coworkers * Dislike routine * Competitive / Driven / High Achievers * Entrepreneurs/Business/Government leaders * Embrace change: especially if their idea * Look for practical solutions * Prone to High Blood Pressure * High sense of time urgency * Often work on own projects, not willing to share or delegate * Prone to being “workaholic” * Studies reveal Type A's generally felt insecure at one point of their lives and so they decided to fight the insecurity by changing their lives and making achievements as fast as they can.

42 TYPE B: “Socializer/Dreamer”
*Highly extroverted *Love the spotlight: Entertaining *Charismatic *Relaxed/Easy-going *Dreaming vs. Doing *Creative & Imaginative *Patient & Philosophical *Non-competitive *Common in Sales and marketing *Can be achievers, but not as competitive as Type A's *May delay work and do it in the last moment *May be procrastinators *Often struggle with success due to procrastination, follow-through.

43 TYPE C: “Detailed Designer”
*Antithesis of Type “B” *Introverted *Detail-Oriented/Focused /Meticulous *May have trouble communicating to/with other people *Talented crunching numbers &/or writing program code *Tend to be very cautious and reserved *Will not venture into something until all facts ckd out *Can spend a lot of time trying to find out how things work and this makes them very suitable for technical jobs. e.g. accountants, programmers, and engineers *Not assertive and suppress their own desires even if there is something that they dislike *Lack of assertiveness tends to result in stress & depression *More vulnerable to depression compared to type A & type B.

44 TYPE D: “Reticent, yet Reliable”. Antithesis of Type “A”
TYPE D: “Reticent, yet Reliable” *Antithesis of Type “A” *Not adventurous *Resist change ~ Prefer routine * Work behind the scenes with predictable results * Reliable follower * Resist responsibility: prefer to be told what to do * Punctual, Consistent, Compliant * Social Inhibition * Pessimistic & Reticent * Lack of self assurance * May experience negative emotions like hostility, anxiety, anger, depressed mood, tension and view of self. * Research: 3X for future cardiovascular issues & risk for clinical depression, anxiety and poor mental health: “…due to increased levels of anxiety, irritation and depressed mood across situations and time, while not sharing these emotions with others because of fear of disapproval."

45 Personality Types …but wait, there’s more… Not uncommon to find people with a blend of personalities, particularly A-B and C-D. These basic personality types explain why some people work well together and others do not. For example ~Type-A clashes with Type-D simply because one is more adventurous than the other, ~Type-B clashes with Type-C one exhibits extroverted personality-other introverted. ~Conversely, Type-A works well with Type-B ~And, Type-C works well with Type-D.

46 Certainly, genetics may play a guiding role as the template.
Personality Types …and lastly… Personality traits, though fairly embedded through our early years, can be -- and have been -- changed. There are many factors which design our primary types: Nature AND Nurture. Certainly, genetics may play a guiding role as the template. However, birth order, social experiences, activities, benchmark moments, belief systems, culture, necessity, demographic variables, family dynamics, etc. all play a role to some extent.

47 Compensation Inferiority Complex Alfred Adler 1870 –1937
Our efforts to overcome real or perceived weaknesses Inferiority Complex Fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that can lead to emotional and social paralysis

48 Alfred Adler Single "drive" or motivating force behind all our behavior and experience. Motivating force the striving for perfection. -the desire we all have to fulfill our potentials, to come closer to our ideal. Basic motivation: compensation -striving to overcome. Our personalities = the ways in which we do -- or don't -- compensate or overcome those problems.

49 Alfred Adler Striving for superiority = Teleology. Unlike Freud, Adler saw motivation as a matter of moving towards the future, rather than being driven, mechanistically, by the past. So what makes so many of us self-interested? Adler says it's a matter of being overwhelmed by our Inferiority

50 Alfred Adler If overwhelmed by the forces of inferiority -- whether it is your body hurting, people around you holding you in contempt, or just the general difficulties of growing up -- you develop an Inferiority Complex. Inferiority complex is a neurosis, a life-size problem One becomes shy & timid, insecure, indecisive, cowardly, submissive, compliant Begin to rely on people to carry you along, even manipulating them into supporting you

51 Alfred Adler You can also develop a Superiority Complex.
Superiority Complex involves covering up inferiority by pretending to be superior. Four psychological types Ruling type. They are, from childhood on, characterized by a tendency to be aggressive and dominant over others. Leaning type. They are sensitive people who have developed a shell around themselves which protects them, but they must rely on others to carry them through life's difficulties.

52 Four psychological types cont.
Alfred Adler Four psychological types cont. Avoiding type The lowest levels of energy, only survive by avoiding life, especially other people. -When pushed to the limits, tend to become psychotic, retreating finally into their own personal worlds. Socially Useful type This is the healthy person, one who has both social interest and energy.

53 Karen Horney (1885-1952) Neurotic trends
Viewed anxiety as powerful motivating force Environmental and social factors seen as important Neurotic trends Irrational strategies for coping w/ emotional problems

54 Family Dynamics Karen's mother was more flexible.
Karen had on-going conflicts with her strict father (a Sea Captain). Karen's mother was more flexible. She married man that shared some of these same authoritarian qualities. Her older brother, Brendt, was the ‘favorite’ child Karen felt that she had been unwanted. Karen was very attached to Brendt.

55 Depression Karen Horney struggled w/ depression.
Her struggles/difficulties helped her understand the dynamics of neurosis. Her analysis of neurosis has been recognized as very insightful, and her theories are enjoying a renewal of interest.

56 The Cause of Neurosis Main source of neurosis: >feelings of anxiety, obsessive thoughts and a degree of social or interpersonal maladjustment. *in the experience of betrayal *in not being loved *in being helpless to bring about that love.

57 Causes Lack of genuine warmth/affection for the child.
Parent not necessarily abusive, but indifferent-- unaware of effects of her/his behavior on child. Translates into behaviors like: * Unjust reprimands * Unfulfilled promises * Unpredictable changes between scornful rejection and overindulgence * Ridiculing independent thinking * Spoiling child's interest in her/his pursuits.

58 First reaction is hostility.
But, as the child needs the parent, and hostility threatens that bond, hostility is repressed. The repression of basic hostility results in basic anxiety: feeling lonely and helpless in a hostile world.

59 The "despised real self" says:
“I Am not Worthy to Be Loved” The "despised real self" says: I am truly a disgraceful creature, a bad person, someone that no one can truly love…

60 But I Should… The Ideal Self says: “People would love me if I were kinder, more athletic, more outgoing, more unselfish, a better friend, parent, mate.” They would love me if I were more courageous, more disciplined, achieved more…” This is a Neurotic Solution to the conflict --as no one can be such a person.

61 The Tyranny of the “Shoulds”
A person can be driven by these demands of the ideal self. These demands are impossible, the attempts to satisfy the "shoulds" is bound to fail. Thus, self hate & feelings of false guilt increase, as well as despair & helplessness.

62 Alienation from the Self
When succumbing to the tyranny of the "shoulds" individuals will: Hate themselves, not want to really know themselves, want to run from themselves Lose their own creativity as they strive to please Feel despair -- helpless in the face of their own behavior.

63 Horney's Concept of the Self
The Actual self: the person you actually are --regardless of anyone's perceptions The Real self: the core of your being, your potential, need to be who you are truly (the subjective view of the actual self). The Despised Real self: negative view of the self, based on the lack of love and acceptance by others. The Ideal self: the perfect self you think you should be, so you can be loved.

64 How can I keep you from hurting me?
I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming, self-effacing solution, moving toward people I'll control things, manipulate, exploit, attack if needed: the expansive solution of moving against people I'll grow my own protective shell, be independent, rebellious, or not look at painful things: the resignation solution: moving away from people

65 If those Defensive Strategies Become a Lifestyle
Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT personality with these traits: Need for affection and approval Need for a dominant partner Moving against people leads to an AGGRESSIVE personality with these traits: Need for power, exploitation, prestige, admiration Need for achievement Moving away from people lead to a DETACHED personality with these traits: Need for perfection Setting narrow limits to life

66 Some Auxiliary Defenses (1)
Externalization: Other people become the center of the neurotic's life. Result: feeling of inner emptiness. Creation of blind spots: Inability to see how different one is from one's ideal image Compartmentalization: Between various areas of life e.g. business, family, church

67 Auxiliary Defenses (2) Rationalization: e.g. I did this to make them happy (no--to make them like you) Excessive self-control: Don't want to be caught in any emotion, vulnerability Arbitrary rightness: Seemingly impulsive decisions (to avoid the pain of real decision making) that are then rationalized. Elusiveness: Constant clouding of issues Cynicism: Assuming that self-interest is the only motivation in operation, and therefore behaving that way oneself.

68 Humanistic Personality Theories
Humanistic view asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their constant striving toward higher levels of functioning Does not dwell on past occurrences, but rather focuses on the present and future

69 Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by external factors, as opposed to the internal drivers of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation drives one to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it. Example Supermarkets use loyalty cards and discounts, airlines use air miles, companies use bonuses and commissions. Extrinsic motivation is everywhere.

70 Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation drives one to do things just for the fun of it, or because one believes it is a good or right thing to do. Example Most people's hobbies are intrinsically motivated. Notice the passion with which people collect items or build detailed models. Few people carry that passion into their workplace.

71 Motivation Team Activity
1) Discuss activities, pursuits, etc. that you would consider intrinsically motivating for you. 2) Discuss and respond to the statement below: There is no such thing as intrinsic motivation…we are always motivated by some extrinsic reward in al that we do. Agree? Disagree? Why?

72 The Humanistic Perspective
Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective “Healthy” rather than “Sick” Individual: greater than the sum of test scores

73 Maslow & Self-Actualization
the process of fufilling our potential Physiological Safety Love Needs Esteem Studied healthy, creative people Eleanor Roosevelt, Abe Lincoln, Tom Jefferson Self-Aware & Self-Accepting Open & Spontaneous Loving & Caring Problem-Centered not Self-Centered

74 Abraham Maslow is a Humanistic Psychologist.
Humanists do not believe that human beings are pushed and pulled by mechanical forces, either of stimuli and reinforcements (behaviorism) or of unconscious instinctual impulses (psychoanalysis). Humanists focus upon potentials. They believe that humans strive for an upper level of capabilities.

75 Abraham Maslow developed a Theory of Motivation and Personality that has influenced a number of different fields, including education. This wide influence is due in part to the high level of practicality of Maslow's theory. This theory accurately describes many realities of personal experiences.


77 Hierarchy Of Needs Physiological Needs Biological needs: oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature, etc. The strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction.

78 (2) Safety Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of ~emergency or ~periods of disorganization in the social structure (such as widespread rioting). Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe.

79 (3) Love, Affection and Belongingness
When needs for safety and physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. People seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. Involves both giving and receiving love, affection & sense of belonging.

80 (4) Esteem These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect and respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.

81 (5) Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as: a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in short, restless. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-actualization.

82 (6) Peak Experiences Peak experiences are sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being, and possibly the awareness of "ultimate truth" and the unity of all things. Accompanying these experiences is a heightened sense of control over the body and emotions, and a wider sense of awareness, as though one were standing upon a mountaintop. The experience fills individual w/ wonder & awe. She/he feels at one with the world and is pleased with it; she or he has seen the ultimate truth or the essence of all things.


84 Maslow states that parents, mentors, teachers, etc
Maslow states that parents, mentors, teachers, etc. should respond to the potential an individual has for growing into a self-actualizing person of his/her own kind. Ten points that should be addressed are listed: We should teach people to be authentic, to be aware of their inner selves and to hear their inner-feeling voices. We should teach people to transcend their cultural conditioning and become world citizens. We should help people discover their vocation in life, their calling, fate or destiny. This is especially focused on finding the right career and the right mate.

85 4. We should teach people that life is precious, that there is joy to be experienced in life, and if people are open to seeing the good and joyous in all kinds of situations, it makes life worth living. 5. We must accept the person as he or she is and help the person learn their inner nature. From real knowledge of aptitudes and limitations we can know what to build upon, what potentials are really there. 6. We must see that the person's basic needs are satisfied. This includes safety, belongingness, and esteem needs.

86 7. We should refresh consciousness, teaching the person to appreciate beauty and the other good things in nature and in living. 8. We should teach people that controls are good, and complete abandon is bad. It takes control to improve the quality of life in all areas. 9. We should teach people to transcend the trifling problems and grapple with the serious problems in life. These include the problems of injustice, of pain, suffering, and death. 10. We must teach people to be good choosers. They must be given practice in making good choices.

87 Maslow Team Activity Discuss where you are on the ‘pyramid’ – and share with your team. 2) Discuss and respond to the statement below: One must have a depth and breadth of life experience(s) in order to truly achieve self-actualization and/or peak experiences. Agree? Disagree? Why?

88 Erik Erikson Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Eight stages of development Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego Integrity vs. Despair 1902 –1994

89 Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional (preadolescence) “Good” behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or seek reward Conventional (adolescence) Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later adolescence, becoming a good citizen Postconventional Emphasis is on abstract principles such as justice, equality, and liberty

90 Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
Research shows that many people never progress past the conventional level Theory does not take cultural differences into account Theory is considered by some to be sexist in that girls often scored lower on tests of morality

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