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The Protest Movement As it relates to the Vietnam War.

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2 The Protest Movement As it relates to the Vietnam War

3 An Era of Protest The idea of civil disobedience as a form of protest emerges as successful tactic of African American Civil Rights Movement Mario Savio leads the first college sit-in at UC Berkeley 12/64 protesting campus policies – 800 demonstrators were arrested

4 Vietnam War mobilizes youth -Draft 1965: 5000 a month -> 1967: 50,000 a month -deferments: college students -conscientious objectors -draft dodgers: burning draft cards

5 Drafts & Deferments The Draft made all 18+ males eligible Men could defer based on education or profession This led to the working-class, poor, and minorities to be more heavily drafted

6 Ineligible classifications 1-A –O Conscientious objector for noncombatant service only 2-S Service deferred – enrolled in college 2-A Service deferred – civilian occupation 3-A Service deferred – has children 4-A Exempt – completed military duty 4-F Disqualified – physical or mental reasons

7 RESISTANCE Some became conscientious objectors Some refused to register for the draft Protesters harassed campus ROTC recruiters As draft went from 5000/mo to 50,000/mo, the draft resisters swelled

8 SDS: Students for a Democratic Society April 1965: 20,000 protests in DC Teachers start protest at Univ. of Mich. 1967: 100s of thousands protest in NYC + San Fran. (Doves) April 1968: Columbia Univ. students seize 5 buildings

9 Who are the protesters? An amalgam University students Free speech movement at Berkeley and other schools Rooted in Civil Rights Movement 60s Youth Reject parents culture Leave it to Beaver-culture is viewed as: sexist, racist, conformist, restrictive Poor Draft rules call up disproportionate numbers of black, Latino, poor white and Native American boys – high school dropouts by far the most likely to serve and die in Vietnam Vietnam Veterans

10 -70% of American believe protests are acts of disloyalty -Jan 1968: Hawks: 62%, Doves: 22% -March 1968: Hawks: 41%, Doves: 42%

11 Democratic Convention - 1968 A series of battles between protestors and Chicago police 598 arrests, 119 police injured, 100 police injured

12 1970 -- protests erupt at Kent State: Burn down ROTC building Governor calls in National Guard, students ordered to disperse Protestors throw stones, sticks at soldiers Soldiers open fire -- 4 students killed Kent State

13 Their parents: WWII, Great Depression, trust in govt., New Deal Them: nuclear war, Vietnam, affluence, comfortable, rock music, energetic Generation gap

14 -Hippies: rejection of conservative values -drug use (LSD) -chaste v. free love, hardworking v. unemployed materialistic v. inward looking, sober v. drugs, homes v. crash pads, sedate v. vibrant

15 Medias impact on attitudes Media becomes increasingly critical after Tet Offensive Cronkite in 68: not closer to victory June 1968: Life publishes photos of 242 Americans killed in Vietnam in one week





20 Implications? Increased uneasiness in the U.S. Greater division between Hawks and Doves Increasing numbers consider themselves Doves Also fueled growing Conservatism as a reaction to the New Left Greater political pressure to get out of Vietnam

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