Presentation on theme: "WCV The Middle Ages TEXT READING PROMPTS 1 >> Respond to each of the prompts with neat, carefully developed answers. >> Must include evidence from the."— Presentation transcript:
TEXT READING PROMPTS 1 >> Respond to each of the prompts with neat, carefully developed answers. >> Must include evidence from the reading to support your decisions. >> Minimum depth is 5-7 complete, detailed sentences each. Byzantium: A Christian Empire Under Siege pp. 284-92 1) What were the socio-economic, political & military effects of the siege, under which the Byzantine Christian Empire fell? Terms of History: Medieval pg. 286 2) What are the roots of the term Middle Ages & to what extent is that term variable and subjective? Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms pp. 299-315 3) What were the roles, projects and powers in early Medieval European Kingdoms? 4) Discuss the Papacy: its place, power & importance in Medieval Europe.
TEXT READING PROMPTS 2 >> Respond to each of the prompts with neat, carefully developed answers. >> Must include evidence from the reading to support your decisions. >> Minimum depth is 5-7 complete, detailed sentences each. 1) Reach a consensus on four of the most fascinating features of Medieval Lifeand describe what aspects drew your attention to them. 2) Reach a consensus on four features of Medieval Life that appear similar to modern day…with obvious variations. 3) Reach a consensus on four features of Medieval Life that appear quite different to modern day…and discuss the ways in which they differ. 4) Individually, discuss why/why not you would have found fulfillment living during those times.
The Middle Ages are referred to as the "medieval period" (sometimes spelled "mediaeval" or "mediæval"). The name is from the Latin medium (middle) and ævum (age). See more at reference.com
Sacre de Charlemagne: Coronation of Charles, 800 C.E.
Charles, Son & Scribe. This 10th-century work is actually a copy of a lost 9th- century original. It depicts Charlemagne meeting with his illegitimate son, Pippin the Hunchback, whom a conspiracy had sought to place on the throne.
Charlemagne at City Hall This statue of Charlemagne in armor stands outside the city hall of Aachen. The palace at Aachen was Charlemagne's favorite residence, and his tomb can be found at the Aachen Cathedral.
By 1050 most kings, dukes and counts were winning greater control over the vassals, ending the petty feudal wars. Kings were starting to consolidate power. Royal power in England: Foundations laid by William of Normandy, who is French. 1066 AD: King Edward the Confessor dies without an heir. William is his 2 nd cousin. Claims throne. Harold Godwinson, an English nobleman wants throne too.
William invades England and a GREAT BATTLE is fought in 1066 at Hastings. Normans win: Norman conquest. William the Conqueror declares all England his personal property. The English lords who had backed Harold lose their fiefs and William gives their lands to Norman lords. He keeps about 20% of land for himself. Thus making him a very strong king, indeed.
The consequences of the Norman Conquest: England emerges as the first centralized feudal kingdom in Europe. About 200,000 Normans settle in England, thus bringing the French language and culture to England. (25% of English words have French origin e.g. surrender) Duke of Normandy is also the King of England and the vassal of the French kingrivalry between French and English kings.
The Crusades: Causes European Expansionism Conversion of Vikings and Magyars removes pressure on Europe Agricultural advances increase food supply Battle of Hastings, 1066 Capture of Toledo from Muslims, 1087 Capture of Sicily from Muslims, 1091
The Crusades: Causes Roman-Byzantine Rivalry Great Schism, 1064 Cluniac (Benedictine) Reform causes church in West to be more attentive to business and provides impetus to attempts to reassert control
The Crusades: Causes Events in Muslim World Battle of Manzikert, 1071. Byzantines lose Anatolia to Turks. Loss foreshadows eventual end of Byzantine Empire. Turks disrupt pilgrim traffic.
Call for a Crusade Urban II calls for Crusade, 1095 Objectives Drive Turks from Anatolia Obligate the Byzantines Provide occasion for healing Great Schism on Rome's terms Capture Holy Land
Major Events of Crusades I Crusade 1097-1098 Achieves all major objectives in Holy Land Turkish threat blunted, though not eliminated Area not strategic to Muslims, could have been held indefinitely with a little skill. Initial gains lost through diplomatic bungling. Crusaders attempt to destabilize neighbors
II Crusade, 1147-1148 Military failure, discredits Crusaders as military threat III Crusade, 1189-1191 Well-known in literature (Robin Hood) Involved Richard I of England, Phillip II of France, Frederick I of Holy Roman Empire Saladin on Muslim side. Major Events of Crusades
IV Crusade, 1199-1204 Western-Greek relations always strained, mutual contempt. To finance crusade, Crusaders work for Venetians Crusaders sack Constantinople, 1204 Chance to heal Great Schism utterly lost. In 1453, when attacked by Turks, Byzantines preferred surrender to asking Rome for aid.
Major Events of Crusades V Crusade1218-1219 Capture Damietta, swap for Jerusalem Moslems agree Crusaders try to conquer Egypt, are routed VI Crusade1229 Frederick II of Germany did little fighting and a lot of negotiation Treaty gave the Crusaders Jerusalem and all the other holy cities and a truce of ten years He was widely condemned for conducting the Crusade by negotiating rather than fighting.
Major Events of Crusades VII Crusade 1248-1254 Led by Louis IX of France Nearly an exact repeat of the Fifth Crusade VIII Crusade 1270 Led by Louis IX of France Louis brother, Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily, had strategic plans of his own and diverted the expedition to Tunisia, where Louis died. The last Crusader cities on the mainland of Palestine fell in 1291 One small island stronghold lasted until 1303.
The Childrens Crusade 1212 AD 20,000 take up the cross Some sold into slavery Some make it to Holy Landdie fighting (?)
Crusades died out Lack of interest, rising European prosperity Repeated military defeats Discredited by "crusades" against Christians (e.g., Albigensians)
Effects of Crusades Fatal weakening of Byzantine Empire Vast increase in cultural horizons for many Europeans. Stimulated Mediterranean trade. Need to transfer large sums of money for troops and supplies led to development of banking techniques. Rise of heraldic emblems, coats of arms Romantic and imaginative literature.
Effects of Crusades Knowledge introduced to Europe Heavy stone masonry, construction of castles and stone churches. Siege technology, tunneling, sapping. Muslim minarets adopted as church spires Weakening of nobility, rise of merchant classes Enrichment was primarily from East to West-- Europe had little to give in return.
Effects Undermines Church/Popes authority Tarnishes Churchs Image Kings become more prosperous /centralized government Merchants become wealthier, more important as trade expands European Jews persecuted/become money lenders (usury) Feudalism on the wane. Increase in trade=cities on the rise
A Population Explosion Population from 1000 AD to 1150 AD: increases 40% from 30 million to 42 million
The Development of Feudalism Rome fell in A.D. 476 as a result of invasion by the Germanic tribes. Central government broke down and trade was disrupted. Cities were abandoned and population centers shifted to rural areas. Ties of personal loyalty and family bound Germanic peoples together. Common needs for economic self- sufficiency and local protection led to a new pattern based on land ownership. The lack of centralized government created the need for a new social order. Christianity remained a major unifying force throughout most of western Europe. The manor became the main economic unit. Church leaders helped to integrate community life. The feudal system developed with a king at the top and mutual duties linking local lords, vassals, and peasants.
Medieval Society Divided into Three Segments: Those who fight Those who work Those who pray
Feudalism Definition: a political and military system based on the holding of the land. The control of land is the key of feudalism.
Feudalism … Emphasis is on local protection, local control, Emphasis is on local protection, local control, local government, and local government, and local self-sufficiency. local self-sufficiency.
Feudalism cont… At the heart of the feudal system is the agreement between the lord and the vassal. At the heart of the feudal system is the agreement between the lord and the vassal. This agreement is a personal bond of Loyalty This agreement is a personal bond of Loyalty
Vassal kneels bareheaded and without his sword before the lord. He places his hands in the hands of the lord. In this humble position, he swore to be the lords vassal all the days of his life and to defend the lord against all men who may live or die. The lord raised him up and kissed him.
Ceremony cont… Investiture: the lord presents to the vassal a rod or small clod of earth, as a symbolic act, transferring into the vassals hands a piece of land (a fief)
Investiture cont… Now, the vassal needs an army to defend the fief, but has no money only land. Now, the vassal needs an army to defend the fief, but has no money only land. So the fief is often subdivided to make the vassal a lord to his army of vassals. So the fief is often subdivided to make the vassal a lord to his army of vassals.
Investiture cont… And so on and so on. Until finally, there isnt enough land to sub-divide further. The bottom rung of vassals are just knights.
Advantages Every local lord had an army to defend land against all enemies.
Feudal Pyramid A Feudal pyramid. Remember the Roman client- patron relationship? Yet rarely organized so clearly. The ambitious vassal. SUBINFEUDATION
Duties… Required to fight in the lords army when called, usually about 40 days of combat on horseback per year. Required to fight in the lords army when called, usually about 40 days of combat on horseback per year.
Duties… Gear (horse, armor, weapons) a great expense. Lots of training too. Vassals need enough land to support system. Constant training for war. Gear (horse, armor, weapons) a great expense. Lots of training too. Vassals need enough land to support system. Constant training for war.
Duties… Financial Emergency: vassals grant lord money (an aid) Financial Emergency: vassals grant lord money (an aid)
Duties… Aid called for also when: 1. Lords oldest son is knighted. 2. Lords oldest daughter married. 3. Lord captured in war and held for ransom. 4. Shelter and food when traveling.
Transition to the High Middle Ages: 1. Heavy plow: cut deep and turned over more soil. Richer soil = Better harvests.
Factor Number 2 Horsepower: vs. Ox-- cheap to feed, but very SLOW. Horses need better food, but could plow 2X amount of land. Harness problem. chest harness, not neck harness Clear new fields (cut down forests). More land in production
Three field system: transition from two field system. 600 acres wheat/rye oats, barley, peas, beans, lentils Factor Number 3