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Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development

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1 Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development
CEPRI Presentation Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development By Dr. John R. Porter Jr.

2 References “A Capital Theory of School Effectiveness and Improvement” [David H. Hargreaves, Cambridge University, UK] “Transforming the American High School” [Michael Cohen, Senior Fellow, The Aspen Institute] Research from the Career Academy Support Network (CASN) Research from New Standards Project and the America’s Choice School Design Model (NCEE) Research by the Matthew Project: National Report (Ohio State University, Marshall University, Appalachia Educational Lab., 1999) Author’s experiences as a superintendent of schools, national consultant with the National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE)

3 Desired Results Review the context and best practices lessons from the global “standards” movement in the 1980s and 1990s Discuss effective design principles and models in the following areas: Governance and Structure Basic Achievement and Literacy Integration of Academic and Career Education

4 Lessons Learned Overseas
CEPRI Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development Lessons Learned Overseas Chinese Epigram from Confucius “A person who learns but does not think is lost.” “A person who thinks but does not learn is in great danger!” February 2, 2003

5 Recognition of ‘The Knowledge Society’
Globalization and the new information technologies have created a new economic and social order: the “Knowledge Society” The old factors of production (capital, labor and resources) have largely been replaced with a new set of “knowledge” related factors Information currently is doubling every five years and by 2020 is expected to double every 73 days. Much of what is now taught in schools is already, or soon will become, “obsolescent” Knowing how to learn and create useful knowledge out of the growing mass of information is the key

6 Global Success Means Success in the knowledge society and in a world of change requires: Large numbers of citizens need the capacity to be autonomous, life-long learners Everyone needs the ability to solve problems and create new solutions Everyone needs the ability to work with and through others

7 Educational Challenge
CEPRI Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development Educational Challenge These nations were being asked to do something they have never been asked to do before and were never designed to do: to ensure that all students, without exception and without excuses, attain high standards. They found that the goal cannot be achieved by working harder at what they have done in the past; it meant working smarter and completely redesigning schools and what happens in them. 9 February 2, 2003

8 Change In Belief Systems
Old Paradigm Success is determined by your background (e.g., family income, race, etc.) The ‘Bell-Shaped Curve’ Lower expectations and standards for some students (poverty, language barriers) Schooling has a minor influence on results Separate concepts from applications New Paradigm Success is determined by your effort All students can reach high standards–if time, instruction and materials are modified Schools can be designed to make students “smarter” Integrate concepts with applications

9 Benchmarking Research on High Performing Systems Overseas
The schools in these countries are: Standards-driven (national standards in all subjects) Organized to honor effort first; Humanities-based the first 8-10 years of schooling Combine strong academics with contextual and applied learning strategies Align their standards with the curriculum and all assessments Designed to have students “demonstrate” knowledge through exhibitions, oral as well as written assessments, and projects

10 Benchmarking (Continued # 2)
Organized to have core teachers stay with students for two or more years Structured to allow common planning time for all core teachers Designed to have longer school calendars for students (190 – 210 days), hours per day are about the same Equal emphasis on intellectual and social capital Have students leave high school with either an “academic,” “technical,” or “dual” credential(s) [e.g., like AP / IB endorsements but in all disciplines]

11 Benchmarking (continued # 3)
Teachers have month contracts (at least professional development days per year) Governing and structural entities that exist between the “state” and individual “schools” are there only for monitoring and support Separate entities at the State-level for standards/accountability/assessment vs. operations and support (Scottish Qualifications Authority vs. Ministry of Education and Economics) Changes and best practices are systemically implemented (e.g.,many local directors of education-equivalent to our superintendents-stay in their position years)

12 Examples:Intellectual Capital
Create learning communities within departments, teams, the school and the district (system) Enhance “internal” and “external” professional networks among teachers [e.g., national professional teaching networks in various subject areas.] Develop and model a “standards-based” culture of practice [ e.g., strong rituals and routines by subject areas, focus on student work]

13 Examples: Social Capital
Expand “real life” extra-curricular activities in adult-like roles [e.g., internships, cross-age teaching, assisting with the various school offices, more student leadership within vertical teams] You cannot have strong “intellectual” capital without strong “social” capital within a school or district

14 Change Leverage-Overseas
Diagram 1: Leverage Output––Quality and Quantity Low High Exhausted Frustration Short-term effectiveness and burn-out High Input––Energy Cynical tokenism High leverage Low

15 The Future Challenge! What if…...
Through a new Gates Foundation grant to the State (20 million dollars a year for twenty years...), the Governor,State Board of Education and other key stakeholders have accepted the ‘challenge’ to graduate 70% or more of Florida’s students from high school to either be ready for entering the ‘sophomore’ year at a Florida state college or university campus or successfully complete their associate of science degree (AS Degree) in an occupational or technical field (upon graduation from high school). 50% of the grant may go to enhance the current state incentive funds (for academic performance or improvement). 10% bonus funding if a ‘high percentage’ of Florida’s high school graduates successfully complete college within ‘five years’ and/or stay in their career path for the same length of time. This starts with the 9th grade class of 2005!

16 What Would Have to Change? Select Any Two
State Schools Districts/ Communities Expectations Standards Curriculum Organization Partnerships Professional Development Resources Other

17 The Purpose Schooling What criteria should be used in crafting a mission statement for the new Gates Foundation challenge?

18 Mission Statement Examples
Example One: Success in today’s society requires the development of a sense of human dignity, an understanding of social responsibility, an appreciation for the benefits of civic participation, and the ability to think critically. The mission of _______School District will be to challenge its students to attain the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to become productive citizens in the twenty-first century. Example Two: Our mission is to offer an exceptional academic program embedded in the communication arts as an integral part of an enriching curriculum that develops students’ abilities to communicate effectively, to reason critically, and to analyze and solve problems logically.

19 Mission Statement Examples
Example 3:The mission of this school district is to make sure that all those who enter in elementary, middle or high school graduate with the skills and knowledge needed to attend college without remediation and, once having achieved that, have an opportunity to pursue, at their own choice, either a program preparing them for a selective college or a demanding technical and professional program leading to a high school diploma.

20 Effective Design Principles
Governance and Structure Basic Achievement and Literacy Integration of Academic and Career Education

21 Governance and Structure (1)
In high performing systems, school governance has been redesigned to: Promote high expectations and standards Focus on results-not process Implement incentives (rewards and consequences that make sense) Create devolution of authority (meaningful site-based leadership)

22 Governance and Structure (2)
Redesigned to: Minimize centralized bureaucracy (shift from regulation and compliance to service and technical assistance) Focus on policy issues (not management-except for the Chief Administrative Officer) Have resources re-directed to the most “accountable” entity (teachers and schools) Advocate market-driven approach (reasonably convenient school choice in a cluster or region)

23 Governance and Structure (3)
District Size and Achievement Mixed data from the 1980’s to present A community’s relative poverty or affluence is a likely indicator of size-relevant variability (small districts have positive gain primarily in low SES communities) District structure that supports strong community, parent/home involvement (e.g.,US Military Schools) Generally, districts that have sustained leadership, are part of a strong-community identity, foster strong school autonomy and focus on support are more successful The search for the optimal district size continues!

24 Governance and Structure (4)
Examples of large systems that behave ‘small’: Edmondon, Alberta, Canada (decentralized authority and resources) Scotland/UK (integrate with local jurisdictions) Victoria, Australia (no school districts) Kentucky (district/board accountability) North Carolina (strong partnerships) Hawaii (cluster concept)

25 Governance and Structure (4)
Reasons for dealing with school size Poor student attendance Low student achievement (many students below the 25% on accountability testing) High drop-out rate (60% or more in some urban settings) Poor engagement in learning Weak academic environment Teacher alienation Bureaucracy in large schools organizes for failure

26 Review of the Literature
Students in small schools are more likely to stay in school, pass major subjects, graduate and go onto college Disadvantaged students in small schools significantly out perform those in large schools on standardized tests Size has more influence on student achievement than any other factor controllable by educators The larger the school the lower the test scores in reading and mathematics No study found student performance in large schools better than in small schools The generally advantaged students are less penalized by large schools than students from poorly educated or low-income families

27 Review of Literature In small schools, at-risk students are much more likely to become involved, make an effort and achieve Small schools narrow the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students Students are better behaved and less likely to be involved in violent acts in small schools or after school Small schools personalize learning and schooling, and create a sense of community and belonging that is essential for most adolescents Small schools influence students’ post-high school behavior, including college attendance Small schools create greater collegiality among the adults, build teacher ownership and commitment, and foster a true learning community between students and teachers

28 School Design and Size (4)
THE SUCCESS OF SMALL SCHOOLS IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO: An unconventional organizational structure A setting that operates more like a community than a bureaucracy Small size (but not at the expense of good teaching and learning) Autonomy (facilities, budget, etc.) Teachers staying with the same students for longer periods of time Meaningful “focus-areas” or themes (not just on paper)

29 School Design and Size (5)
SOME IMPORTANT CAUTIONS No magic bullet No fail-safe solution

30 School Design and Size (6)
Hard choices for districts and schools Internationally effective grade-level configurations are: 1) K-12 (same campus), 2) K-8 along with 9 -12, 3) K-6 along with Recommended maximum school size =1453 students Options for large schools: 1) create a series of multiplexes of small separate schools or 2) create a series of small schools-within-schools (all with separate autonomy and identity)

31 Designing Small Schools for Results
Structural Components Double Periods of ELA and Math Teachers stay with the same students for at least two years Students work in a portfolio-based culture Year-to-year decision on ramping-up needs Tutoring by the same core teachers Instructional Components Standards-based Strong rituals and routines Leveled text Literacy and math skills taught Across the curriculum Relearning skills taught in context Class and individual performance targets

32 Basic Achievement and Literacy
Connected to an effective school design structure Good strong principles of teaching and learning Research-based strategies Strong curriculum Connected safety nets and support services Meaningful parent engagement

33 High-Performing Schools
Instruction is aligned. Student performance really matters. School culture focuses on student work. Professional development is aligned to bring about system-wide change. 12

34 Matching the difficulty of the task to the ability of the student
Focused Teaching Matching the difficulty of the task to the ability of the student Scaffolding occurs through the support of the “more knowing other” Anxiety Level of challenge Zone of proximal development Boredom Level of competence 31 Source: Zone of proximal development, Vygotsky, 1978

35 Three Elements of Effective Pedagogy
Instructional Strategies Management Techniques Curriculum Design Effective Pedagogy

36 Our Challenge in America
Help bring all students to high levels of performance, including: Students whose first language is not English Special Education students Struggling students (literacy and math) Gifted students who are bored

37 Where We Need To Go State Content Standards [Knowing and Doing]
Teach to the “Highest Standards” National Performance Standards [Work that meets standards]

38 Literacy and Math Acceleration
Strong rituals, routines and artifacts Research-based Literacy program Readers Workshop Writers Workshop Research-based Mathematics program Tutoring by the same core teachers (ELA, Math) Safety-nets (during the week and Saturdays) Summer Bridge (some students should never have ‘Summer-Off’) 1

39 Example:Research-Based Literacy Program
Writers Workshop Monographs Genre Studies Writers Workshop Lessons Readers Workshop Author Studies Ramping up 2

40 Writers Workshop 3

41 Readers Workshop 9

42 Example: Research-Based Math Program
Conceptual Understanding Standards Number and operation concepts Geometry and measurement concepts Function and algebra concepts Statistics and probability concepts Problem Solving and Mathematical Reasoning Mathematical Skills and Tools Mathematical Communication Putting Mathematics to Work 10

43 Safety-Net Consideration
Curriculum and program Organization and operations Staffing and staff training Student identification and enrollment Facilities and resources 17

44 Integration of Academic and Career Curriculum
Responsibility of K-12 all students meet high academic standards Academic concepts should be taught in some context (applied learning, K-12) Strong humanities-based curriculum up to Grades 9 or 10 (with an earned credential) All students should have a meaningful career exploration experience (e.g., project-based learning, internship, service learning, etc.) Very adult-like options in Grades (with a focus) Best practice and model (Danish Educational System)

45 Integration (continued 1)
Options in high school would include: Humanities-based focus or major Math/science-based focus or major Career/technical focus or major Dual focus (any combination above) All options have students ready for college (no remediation) Some students should spend last two years in a community college (plus receive their high school diploma)

46 Partners Responsibilities
CEPRI Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development Partners Responsibilities Community College All career, technical and professional certificates and credentials Seamless articulation with high schools on all technical/vocational course offerings (no duplication) Link to industry sectors for standards, new equipment and certification Assist high schools with “readiness” academic standards in English and Math (joint faculty professional and curriculum development) February 2, 2003

47 Partners Responsibilities (2)
Chambers of Commerce Coordinate all connecting activities between high schools/community colleges and employers Coordinate and supervise meaningful exploratory career experiences (e.g., job shadowing, guest speakers, mentorship program, internships) Sustain relationships with employers and providers within a community or region

48 Partners Responsibilities (3)
Workforce Investment Boards (WIB) Endorse all industry and training certification needs within their region Fund connecting activities (via the local chambers) Fund planning grants for Career Academies Match funds with local school districts on acceleration initiatives in literacy and mathematics, Grades 4-9

49 Where to Start! Career Academies
Best American high school design model connecting strong academics to careers Strong evidence that the model works (when implemented correctly): Reduces the drop-out rate Improves academic performance (GPA) Improves daily attendance and credits earned Gets students into college and a career

50 Career Academy Design (1)
Small learning community (cluster of students and teachers that stay together for at least two years) College-preparatory curriculum with a career theme (e.g., health, bio-tech, finance, geo-space, education) Partnerships with community groups, including employers, parents, and higher education

51 Career Academy Design (2)
New High School Diploma State Connecting Activities Core Academics WIB/Chamber Guidance Core Subjects College Courses Paid internship Core Subjects Career Foundation Electives Tutoring Mentorship Program Community College Real Applications Core Subjects Career Foundation Electives Job Shadowing Guest Speakers District

52 Career Academy Design (3)
System-level recommendations FLDOE cabinet-level position but housed with the State Director for Workforce Investment Keeper of the design (state endorsement criteria) New name (e.g., Florida Partnership Academies) Works through regional WIB’s and chambers to drive the design Oversees “planning grant applications” for WIB funding Oversees professional development training jointly funded through DOE and Workforce Investment Districts with “endorsed academies” then are eligible for matching WIB acceleration funds

53 The Goal for Florida’s Future
CEPRI Master Plan Committee on Career Education and Development The Goal for Florida’s Future “Everyone Needs To Think For A Living!” February 2, 2003

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