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Searching: Binary Trees and Hash Tables CHAPTER 12 6/4/15 Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 1

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Chapter Contents 12.1 Review of Linear Search and Binary Search 12.2 Introduction to Binary Trees 12.3 Binary Trees as Recursive Data Structures 12.4 Binary Search Trees 12.5 Case Study: Validating Computer Logins 12.6 Threaded Binary Search Trees (Optional) 12.7 Hash Tables Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 2

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Chapter Objectives Look at ways to search collections of data Begin with review of linear and binary search Introduce trees in general and then focus on binary trees, looking at some of their applications and implementations See how binary trees can be viewed as recursive data structures and how this simplifies algorithms for some of the basic operations Develop a class to implement binary search trees using linked storage structure for the data items (Optional) Look briefly at how threaded binary search trees facilitate traversals Introduce the basic features of hash tables and examine some of the ways they are implemented Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 3

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Linear Search Collection of data items to be searched is organized in a list x 1, x 2, … x n Assume = = and < operators defined for the type Linear search begins with first item continue through the list until target found or reach end of list Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 4

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Linear Search Vector based search function template void LinearSearch (const vector &v, const t &item, boolean &found, int &loc) { found = false; loc = 0; while(loc < n && !found) { if (found || loc == v.size()) return; if (item == x[loc]) found = true; else loc++;} Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 5

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Linear Search Singly-linked list based search function template void LinearSearch (NodePointer first, const t &item, boolean &found, int &loc) { found = false; locptr = first; while(locptr != NULL && !found) { if (item == locptr->data) found = true; else locptr = locptr->next++;} Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 6 In both cases, the worst case computing time is still O(n)

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Binary Search Binary search function for vector template void LinearSearch (const vector &v, const t &item, boolean &found, int &loc) { found = false; int first = 0; int last = v.size() - 1; while(first <= last && !found) { if (found || first > last) return; loc = (first + last) / 2; if (item < v[loc]) last = loc + 1; else if (item > v[loc]) first = loc + 1; else /* item == v[loc] */ found = true; } } Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 7

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Binary Search Usually outperforms a linear search Disadvantage: Requires a sequential storage Not appropriate for linked lists (Why?) It is possible to use a linked structure which can be searched in a binary-like manner Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 8

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Binary Search Tree Consider the following ordered list of integers 1. Examine middle element 2. Examine left, right sublist (maintain pointers) 3. (Recursively) examine left, right sublists Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 9 80666249352813

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Binary Search Tree Redraw the previous structure so that it has a treelike shape – a binary tree Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 10

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Trees A data structure which consists of a finite set of elements called nodes or vertices a finite set of directed arcs which connect the nodes If the tree is nonempty one of the nodes (the root) has no incoming arc every other node can be reached by following a unique sequence of consecutive arcs Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 11

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Trees Tree terminology Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 12 Root node Leaf nodes Children of the parent (3) Siblings to each other Children of the parent (3) Siblings to each other

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Binary Trees Each node has at most two children Useful in modeling processes where a comparison or experiment has exactly two possible outcomes the test is performed repeatedly Example multiple coin tosses encoding/decoding messages in dots and dashes such as Morse code Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 13

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Array Representation of Binary Trees Store the i th node in the i th location of the array Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 14

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Array Representation of Binary Trees Works OK for complete trees, not for sparse trees Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 15

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Linked Representation of Binary Trees Uses space more efficiently Provides additional flexibility Each node has two links one to the left child of the node one to the right child of the node if no child node exists for a node, the link is set to NULL Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 16

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Linked Representation of Binary Trees Example Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 17

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Binary Trees as Recursive Data Structures A binary tree is either empty … or Consists of a node called the root root has pointers to two disjoint binary (sub)trees called … right (sub)tree left (sub)tree Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 18 Anchor Inductive step Which is either empty … or …

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Tree Traversal is Recursive If the binary tree is empty then do nothing Else N: Visit the root, process data L: Traverse the left subtree R: Traverse the right subtree Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 19 The "anchor" The inductive step

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Traversal Order Three possibilities for inductive step … Left subtree, Node, Right subtree the inorder traversal Node, Left subtree, Right subtree the preorder traversal Left subtree, Right subtree, Node the postorder traversal Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 20

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Traversal Order Given expression A – B * C + D Represent each operand as The child of a parent node Parent node, representing the corresponding operator Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 21

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Traversal Order Inorder traversal produces infix expression A – B * C + D Preorder traversal produces the prefix expression + - A * B C D Postorder traversal produces the postfix or RPN expression A B C * - D + Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 22

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ADT Binary Search Tree (BST) Collection of Data Elements binary tree each node x, value in left child of x value in x in right child of x Basic operations Construct an empty BST Determine if BST is empty Search BST for given item Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 23

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ADT Binary Search Tree (BST) Basic operations (ctd) Insert a new item in the BST Maintain the BST property Delete an item from the BST Maintain the BST property Traverse the BST Visit each node exactly once The inorder traversal must visit the values in the nodes in ascending order Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 24 View BST class template, Fig. 12-1 View BST class template, Fig. 12-1

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BST Traversals Note that recursive calls must be made To left subtree To right subtree Must use two functions Public method to send message to BST object Public method Private auxiliary method that can access BinNodes and pointers within these nodes Private auxiliary method Similar solution to graphic output Public graphic method Public graphic method Private graphAux method Private graphAux method Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 25

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BST Searches Search begins at root If that is desired item, done If item is less, move down left subtree If item searched for is greater, move down right subtree If item is not found, we will run into an empty subtree View search() search() Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 26

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Inserting into a BST Insert function Uses modified version of search to locate insertion location or already existing item Pointer parent trails search pointer locptr, keeps track of parent node Thus new node can be attached to BST in proper place View insert() function insert() Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 27 R

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Recursive Deletion Three possible cases to delete a node, x, from a BST 1. The node, x, is a leaf Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 28

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Recursive Deletion 2. The node, x has one child Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 29

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Recursive Deletion x has two children Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 30 Replace contents of x with inorder successor K Delete node pointed to by xSucc as described for cases 1 and 2

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Problem of Lopsidedness Tree can be balanced each node except leaves has exactly 2 child nodes Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 31

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Problem of Lopsidedness Trees can be unbalanced not all nodes have exactly 2 child nodes Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 32

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Problem of Lopsidedness Trees can be totally lopsided Suppose each node has a right child only Degenerates into a linked list Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 33 Processing time affected by "shape" of tree

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Case Study: Validating Computer Logins Consider a computer system which logs in users Enter user name Enter password System does verification The structure which contains this information must be able to be searched rapidly Must also be dynamic Users added and removed often Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 34

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Case Study: Validating Computer Logins Design Create class, UserInfo which contains ID, password Build BST of UserInfo objects Provide search capability for matching ID, password Display message with results of validity check View source code, Fig. 12.9Fig. 12.9 Nyhoff, ADTs, Data Structures and Problem Solving with C++, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-140909-3 35

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