Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table of Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1 Periodic Table of Elements MEET THE ELEMENTSPagesCh.4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1
2 Dmitri MendeleevHe recognized patterns in the element’s approximate atomic masses and their ability to bond with other elements.
3 Periodic TableBased on atomic masses and their ability to bond with other elements, Mendeleev constructed the first periodic Table.
4 The AtomNucleus: The core of the atom that contains two different subatomic particles.
5 The Atom cont… Protons: Have a positive charge. The number of protons equals the number of electrons.
6 Neutrons: Have no Charge. The Atom cont…Neutrons: Have no Charge.
7 Electrons Negative charge. The Atom cont…Electrons Negative charge..
8 Atomic Numbers, Symbols and Mass Atomic number is the smaller number and the number of protons in the nucleus.Element Symbol47AgSilverElement NameAtomic mass is the average mass of all the known isotopes.
9 How to calculate # of neutrons Mass number - Atomic number = # of neutronsThis element is Nitrogen. Its mass # is 14. So mass # of 14, minus atomic # of 7, equals 7 neutrons.Count the number of protons. What element is it?
10 How to Calculate Number of Electrons The number of electrons equal the number of protons.7 electrons7 protons
11 How many neutrons does Mn (Manganese) have? 302555730
12 How many Neutrons does K (Potassium) have? 19203911100 of 30
15 IsotopesWhen atoms of the same element have a different number of neutrons
16 Valence ElectronsThe electrons on the outermost ring or energy level that can be shared or transferred with other atoms to make compounds.
17 Valence Electrons and Bonding (ch. 5.1 pgs. 176-182) The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms.
18 When an atom has a different # of neutrons it’s called a… IonIsotopeProtonElement0 of 30
19 What subatomic particle influences an elements ability to bond? 30ProtonsNeutronsValence ElectronsNucleus
20 Groups –Familieselementsin agrouphave verysimilar characteristicsi.e. bonding, reactivity, valence electronsPeriods- elements in a period are not alike, but gradually change as you move from left to right.
21 Almost 75% of all elements are classified as metals.
22 Properties of MetalsConductors: Metals are good at conducting electricity.Malleable: Ability to bend or pound into shapes.
23 Properties of Metals Ductile: Pull or stretch into wire. Many are shiny, hard and magnetic.High melting point
24 Which of the following would be the best conductor of electricity? Carbon (atomic number 6)Strontium (atomic number 38)Tellurium (atomic number 52)of30
25 What is a characteristic of metals? GasStableGood conductorBrittle30
26 Metals are malleable, which means… Pound or mold into shapeBrittleStretch into wireof30
27 What do all elements in a group/family have in common? Same # of Valence electronsSame # of protonsSame # of rings/shells/energy levelsof30
28 ALKALI METALS-Group 1So reactive that they are never found isolated in nature, only combined with other elements.
29 ALKALI METALS-Group 1 Characteristics Properties: Soft Shiny One valance: electron makes them very reactive.
30 The Sodium in the class demo reacted so violently because it has… 303 protons1 neutron2 valence electrons1 valence electron
31 What family is Hydrogen in? AlkaliAlkaline EarthHalogensNo Family0 of 30
32 Ca: important for bones. Alkaline Earth MetalsGroup 2 metals.Very reactive, not as reactive as alkali metals due to having one more valence electron.Ca: important for bones.
33 Metalloids Have some properties of both metals and nonmetals. They are located on the zigzag line between the metals and the nonmetals.Physical Properties:Can be good at conducting electricity, therefore some are used as computer chips such as Si and Ge.
34 Non-metals Non metals lack properties of metals. They are on the right side of the periodic table.Non-metalsOFeFe2O3 = Iron Oxide = RustNon metals usually react with metals to make compounds.In general, metals give up electrons to non-metals.
35 Properties of Metals cont… Reactivity: Ability to react and combine with other elements. Some are more reactive than others. Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are some of the most reactive metals.
36 Which of the following elements is most likely to react? ChlorineHeliumIronof30
37 What are the group 17 (7A) elements called? 30Alkaline EarthRare EarthHalogenTransition Metals
38 What is the Group/Family name of the elements in BLUE? 30AlkaliAlkaline EarthTransitionMetalloidsHalogenNoble GasRare Earth
39 What is the Group/Family name of the elements in RED? 30AlkaliAlkaline EarthTransitionMetalloidsHalogenNoble GasRare Earth
40 What is the Group/Family name of the elements in GREEN? 30AlkaliAlkaline EarthTransitionMetalloidsHalogenNoble GasRare Earth
41 Predicting ReactionsElements become more stable as they gain more valence electrons.As a result, atoms will gain, lose or share electrons to form compounds so that they have 8 valence electrons or a full shell.This is called the Octet Rule. However there are many exceptions, but this is an easy way to predict common reactions.
42 Atoms are “happy” when they have either only 2 valence electrons (He) or 8electrons.
43 Families of Non-metals The Halogen family is group 17 (7A). Each element has 7 valence electrons, therefore it commonly takes one electron away from group one metals to make compounds.
44 Families of Non-metals The Noble Gases are group 18 (8A). They have 8 valence electrons, therefore they are very stable and non-reactive.
45 Not a part of group 1. Generally found as H2 Hydrogen It doesn’t fit into any other family because it is so different from all other elements.
46 Group 17 (7A) has 7 valence electrons and are called the 30Alkali metalsAlkaline Earth MetalsHalogensNoble Gases
47 Group 18 (8A) has 8 valence electrons and are called 30Alkali metalsAlkaline Earth MetalsHalogensNoble Gases
48 What element would Na (Sodium) bond with? 30BrKWAl
49 What element would Mg (Magnesium) bond with? 30AuNaSeKr
50 How many Hydrogen atoms would bond to one N (Nitrogen)? 6283
51 MatterAnything that has mass and takes up space
52 The four states of matter are solids, liquids, gasses and plasma.
54 ElementsCan’t be broken down into another substance.
55 The smallest particle of an element. Basic unit of all matter AtomThe smallest particle of an element. Basic unit of all matter
56 An ELEMENT is a pure substance made up of only one type of atom. Element vs. CompoundAn ELEMENT is a pure substance made up of only one type of atom.They may exist as atoms like the Noble Gases e.g. helium He or as molecules e.g. hydrogen H2 or sulfur S2
57 Compound EX: H20water CO2Carbon Dioxide C12022H11 Sugar Chemical Combination of 2 or more DIFFERENT elements.EX: H20waterCO2Carbon DioxideC12022H11 SugarC6H12O6 Glucose
60 Theobromine, C7H8O4N2 or Chocolate FormulaRatio of atoms of each element in a compound.Theobromine, C7H8O4N2 or Chocolate
61 Law of Conservation of Matter Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change.It recombines to make a new type of chemical.
62 Changes in MatterPhysical Change: When the state of matter changes.
63 Physical Changewhipping egg whites (air is forced into the fluid, but no new substance is produced)magnetizing a compass needle (there is realignment of groups ("domains") of iron atoms, but no real change within the iron atoms themselves).boiling water (water molecules are forced away from each other when the liquid changes to vapor, but the molecules are still H2O.)dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules are dispersed within the water, but the individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates molecules without changing them.)
64 Changes in Matter cont… Chemical Change: When a substance(s) combines or decompose into a new substance.
66 Examples of a chemical change iron rusting (iron oxide forms)gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon dioxide form)eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil and crosslink to form a network)bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas)milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is produced)suntanning (vitamin D and melanin is produced)
67 Both physical and chemical change 5Chemical change onlyPhysical change onlyBoth physical and chemical change
68 Both physical and chemical change 5Chemical change onlyPhysical change onlyBoth physical and chemical change
69 He, O2, N2, and Ne are all:5AtomsElementsCompounds