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Kingdom Protista The Catch-all Kingdom.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Protista The Catch-all Kingdom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Protista The Catch-all Kingdom

2 Protista The protist kingdom is broken down into three main groups.
The Animal-like protists, Plant-like protists Fungi-like protists.

3 Protista Each group have some characteristics in common with the plants, animal and fungi kingdoms but not enough to qualify for membership in that Kingdom.

4 Protista Since the members of this Kingdom would not fit into the Animal, Plant and Fungi Kingdoms, it was determined that these odd eukaryotes would form their very own kingdom.

5 Protozoan Animal-like protists Single celled, microscopic
Move independently using pseudopods, cilia, flagella Live in all aquatic environments and is moist soil or organic matter Heterotrophic , ingest small molecules or cells that are usually broken down in food vacuoles

6 Protozoan Most are free-living but some are parasitic
Parasitic species may cause disease including malaria, amebic dysentery and Giardiasis Many species make up zooplankton in sea, an important food source of larger sea organisms

7 Protozoan Reproduction:
Capable of asexual and in time of environmental stress they can reproduce of sexual reproduction Asexual – binary fission or mitosis Multiple fission- can produce more than two new organisms that are genetically identical Sexual - conjugation

8 Protozoan Classification: Four Phyla Sacodina - Amoebas
Ciliophora - cilliates Sporozoa – spore producing Zoomastigina- Flagellates

9 Protozoan Adaptations:
Some species have mechanisms for monitoring and responding to their environment. Some species have eyespots – light sensing pigments. Some species have the ability to sense chemical and physical changes in the environment. Can survive harsh environmental conditions by forming a cyst. A hardened external covering in which metabolic activity stops.

10 Phylum Sarcodina Includes all amoebas.
Inhabit fresh and salt water and moist soil. Move using pseudopodia. Has a contractile vacuole to maintain correct balance of water.

11 Sarcodina Naked amoeba’s – do not have a shell
Foraminifera – have shells called tests made of calcium carbonate which is responsible for much of the limestone rock formations Radiolarians –radial shape with a silicon dioxide shell Some parasitic species can cause amebic dysentery

12 Amoeba Cell membrane Has a contractile vacuole to expel excess water, without this structure the amoeba would burst from osmosis


14 Amoeba

15 Protozoan Phylum Ciliophora. Members include paramecium.
Cilia – short hair-like structures for movement. Oral groove, mouth pore, gullet and anal pore is like a primitive digestive system. Reproduction: asexual by binary fission Sexual by conjugation

16 Paramecium Paramecium is a group of protists found in aquatic communities

17 Paramecium

18 Protozoa Phylum Zoomastigina Have one or more flagella
Many species are free-living in aquatic environments Impact to humans: Some members cause disease to animals and humans Trypanosomiasis- sleeping sickness spread by infected tsetse flies Chagas disease- transmitted by the kissing bug Leishmaniasis- transmitted by sand fleas Giardiasis – contracted through contaminated water

19 Protozoa Phylum Sporozoa
No means of locomotion, most species are parasitic and cause disease Complex life cycles produce spores Carried in the blood and tissues of their host and destroy host cells Diseases include: toxoplasmosis, fatal to unborn babies but not adults with healthy immune systems Carried by cats, birds, rodents

20 Protozoa Phylum protozoa Include Plasmodium Causes malaria
Carried by mosquitoes

21 anopheline mosquitoes


23 Algae Characteristics: are most plant-like and can make their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Often form the base of aquatic food chains

24 Algae- Plant-like Protists
Characteristics: May be single or multicellular Autotrophic- photosynthesis Closely related to the plant Kingdom but Lack tissue of differentiation, no true roots, stems or leaves and the reproductive process of alternation of generations is slightly different than that of plants

25 Algae Body portion is called a thallus and is usually haploid
Structure: Body portion is called a thallus and is usually haploid May be unicellular, multicellular colonial, filamentous

26 Algae Environment Make up a major portion of phytoplankton
Important to the food chain of aquatic habitats Photosynthesis provides a major portion of worlds oxygen

27 Algae Based on color of photosynthetic pigments
Classification: Based on color of photosynthetic pigments Form of food storage substance Cell wall composition

28 Algae Reproduction: Many species reproduce by both sexual and asexual means Some species only reproduce asexually Asexual reproduction by mitosis Sexual reproduction includes production of haploid spores that fuse and become a zygote Alternation of generations

29 Algae Phylum Chlorophyta Green Algae – contain chlorophyll
Large range of reproduction and forms Single celled and multicelled Most species are aquatic Some live in moist terrestrial habitats Some live symbiotically in the bodies of invertebrates -lichen

30 Algae Phylum Chlorophyta. Green algae have many similarities to plants and are believed to have given rise to plants.

31 Green Algae

32 Algae Phylum Phaeophyta
Brown Algae include several species of seaweed and kelp Mostly live in aquatic environments All species are multicellular Used by humans for medicine, cosmetics, and food

33 Alaria the winged kelps

34 Brown Algae

35 Algae Phylum Rhodophyta Red Algae
Live in fresh and salt water, moist soil, can be found deep in the ocean Used for medicines, cosmetics. Gelatin cubes, and food

36 Red Algae

37 Red Algae

38 Botryoglossum ruprechtianum Literally meaning "grape tongue" doesn't help much in identifying this alga. However, its ruffled edges along with its foliose thallus are characters that may help you recognize it prior to tripping over it in the intertidal.

39 The giant of the sea, Chondracanthus
corymbiferus This alga is huge! It can reach up to 2 meters in length. It is thick and leathery and often covered with reproductive bumps called papillae

40 Chondracanthus harveyanus
This is another one of those "Cartilaginous tooths" or Chondracanthus species. It may look spiny, but when its found fresh in the intertidal, the blades are velvet-like to the touch. A definite favorite and award winning alga!

41 Gelidium purpurascens
The agar (the stuff in petri dishes to stiffen bacteria food, also found in puddings, jellies, mayonnaise, and laxatives) containing seaweed . This seaweed is not purple, but bright red, and very useful economically.

42 Algae Phylum Bacillariophyta Diatoms Abundant in all aquatic habitats
Cell walls are shell-like made of silicon dioxide Two shapes Centric diatoms – circle shaped Pennate- rectangular shaped

43 Diatom

44 Diatom

45 Algae Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
Abundant component of phytoplankton When they die their shells collect at the bottom of the ocean which are mined by humans and used as abrasives in detergents, in paint to make it reflect light, Paint removers, fertilizers, insulators and toothpaste

46 Algae Phylum Dinoflagellata Usually unicellular
Usually photosynthetic but a few species are colorless heterotrophs Make up most of the organic matter in marine environments Photosynthetic members have brownish-yellow pigments

47 Dinoflagellata

48 Algae Phylum Dinoflagellata.
Most have flagella two different lengths that run perpendicular to each other causing them to spin. Some species bioluminescence. Some species produce toxins and red pigments, when their populations explode they turn crimson color we call red tide. These toxins are dangerous to humans who eat effected fish. This is the algae the gives the U of A football team the name crimson tide.

49 Algae Phylum Chrysophyta Golden algae Most live in fresh water
Form highly resistant cysts that enable them to survive beneath frozen surfaces in lakes, pods and streams Two flagella located at one end Most are yellow or brown Store surplus food as oil Important in the formation of petroleum deposits

50 Chrysophyta

51 Algae Phylum Euglenophyta – euglenoids Flagellated Unicellular
Show both plant-like and animal-like characteristics Photosynthetic, have chlorophyll Lack a cell wall and move independently

52 Euglena

53 Euglena

54 Euglena

55 Algae Phylum Euglenophyta Most species live in fresh water
Some species live in moist soil Some live in the digestive tract of certain animals, and do not have chloroplasts so they become heterotrophs Uses a contractile vacuole to balance fluids The beloved Euglena is a member of this group

56 Fungus-like Slime Molds
Slime molds are divided into two phyla They are not closely related but have some characteristics in common Spend part of their life in a mobile amoeba-like form engulfing organic matter Produce fungus reproductive structures Found in damp soil, and decomposing organic matter They glisten and are viscous masses of white, yellow or red globs

57 Fungus-like Protists Slime Molds
Phylum Acrasiomtycota Cellular slime molds Haploid In times of stress chemical are excreted attracting other members and huddle Pseudoplasmodium is a colony resembling a slug Phylum Myxomycota Plasmoidial slime Mass of cytoplasm (plasmodium) decomposer

58 Slime mold myxomycota

59 Slime mold myxomycota

60 Slime mold myxomycota

61 Resources

62 Resources

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