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“The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan

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1 “The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan
1960s: An Era of Social Change Vickie Looser

2 ’60s: An Era of Social Change
Latinos fight for change Native Americans struggle for equality African-Americans lead the civil rights movement Women’s movement pushes for equality Rebellious youth embrace counterculture Counterculture impacts fashion, fine arts, and social attitudes

3 Latinos Fight for Change
Large, diverse group of Spanish-speaking Americans 9 million by 1970 Encounter ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing Live in segregated barrios or neighborhoods. 50% higher rate of poverty and joblessness than whites images/latinos.JPG

4 Latinos demand Respect
Cesar Chavez led United Farm Workers Movement to improve pay and working conditions for farm workers “Brown power” movements increase cultural pride Bilingual Education of funds bilingual and cultural heritage programs Young Mexicans adopt Chicano as symbol of ethnic pride Organize politically civilrights/a htm cecchronsp.htm

5 Native Americans Unite
Poorest Americans Highest unemployment rate Health Problems: tuberculosis, alcoholism Termination policies to assimilate fail in 1950s Protesters demand reform html/npeople.html

6 African-Americans fight Jim Crow System
Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement 1950s: Fight against segregation Brown v. Topeka Board of Education orders segregation in public schools, no longer “separate but equal” doctrine Resistance in Southern states: de jure segregation 1957 crisis in Little Rock to oppose integration of Central High School

7 Civil Rights 1950s 1954: Montgomery Bus Boycott Begun by Rosa Parks
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. helped to lead the Montgomery movement IHaveADream.htm

8 Civil Rights 1960s 1960 Sit-ins at segregated lunch counters
Freedom riders attacked in Anniston, Alabama Integration of college campuses Birmingham’s Children’s Crusades for racial justice President Kennedy uses federal troops to force desegregation of U of AL Medgar Evars killed in Mississippi tuscaloosa/album.html

9 “I Have a Dream” 1963 March on Washington
King’s speech appealed for peace and racial harmony President Kennedy assassinated, President Johnson endorsed Civil Rights Bill Civil Rights Act of 1964 prevented discrimination to all areas of public accommodations

10 Freedom Summer, 1964 SNCC organized voter registration project
Selma-to-Montgomery march to promote voting rights movement Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated the literacy test info-mac-projects.htm

11 Changes in the Civil Rights Movement
Northern de facto segregation resulted in urban violence Race riots in Harlem, Watts Demands for economic equality of opportunity in jobs, housing, and education LBJ promotes his War on Poverty to establish his Great Society Program

12 New Voices in Civil Rights
Malcolm X and Black Muslims promote Black Pride “Ballots or bullets” became new slogan Broke with Nation of Islam and Elijah Muhammad Preached black superiority and separation from whites Assassinated in 1965 referate/englisch/r0439t00.htm

13 Radicalism in Civil Rights
Black Panthers organized in 1966 to fight police brutality Advocated taking control of communities in which Blacks lived, full employment, and decent housing Adopted Mao Zedong’s slogan “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun” Feared by whites who objected to revolutionary rhetoric greenlantern.htm

14 1968: Turning Point in Civil Rights
Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated in Memphis in April Urban rioting in major cities Kerner Commission stated major cause of urban rioting to be white racism Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in housing

15 Civil Rights Gains by 1970 24th Amendment banned Poll Tax
African-Americans expressed greater pride in their racial identity More African Americans in movies, television shows, and commercials 2/3 of African Americans registered to vote Increase in African Americans holding elected office Affirmative action programs promoted hiring of groups who suffered discrimination in the past

16 Women Fight for Equality
Feminism promoted economic, political, and social equality with men 1961 Presidential Commission reported wage discrimination in the workplace Women inspired by civil rights and antiwar movements Women shared in “consciousness-raising” sessions Women.htm

17 The Feminine Mystique Betty Friedan’s book exposed discontent of U. S. women Women’s Liberation movement achieved political and social gains for women fp60iger.htm

18 NOW opposed sex discrimination
Urged creation of more child care facilities and improved educational opportunities for women Pressured EEOC to enforce ban on gender discrimination in hiring Staged protest at Miss America pageant Gloria Steinem founded National Women’s Political Caucus to encourage women to seek political office 1972 Ban on gender discrimination in higher education MS-NR.html

19 Roe v. Wade, 1973 Supreme Court ruled women had the right to choose an abortion in first three months of pregnancy Americans divided over abortion issue special/roewade

20 Equal Rights Amendment
Guaranteed “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” Sparked fierce opposition Phyllis Schlafly led Stop-ERA campaign Ratified by 35 states, but needed 38 Failed in ratification movement that ended in 1982

21 Gains by Women’s Movement
Opened up new opportunities for American women Created new opportunities in education, employment, and politics Women viewed their jobs as lifetime careers “Glass ceiling” recognized as an invisible, but real resistance to promoting women into top positions CR32003/Cacalicr3/page%205.htm

22 “Tune in, turn on, drop out.”—Timothy Leary
Youth embrace Counterculture Hippies criticize American materialism, technology, and war Many chose to protest by leaving society to live in communes photographs.html

23 Age of Aquarius Desire an idyllic setting of peace, love and harmony
Embrace rock ‘n’ roll music, outrageous clothes, and liberal use of drugs Experiment with marijuana and LSD (acid) Photos.html

24 “Do your own thing.” Hippies rejected the establishment by wearing outrageous clothes Long hair and beards for men Ragged jeans, tie-dyed T-shirts, and surplus military garments Beads and Native American ornaments 1998/default.htm

25 Hippies adopt communal lifestlyes
Reject conventional home life Adopt group living arrangements Live together in cooperation and harmony Escape to rural communes or crowd together in urban “crash pads” Hippie Capital—Haight-Ashbury district in San Francisco Haight-Ashbury.htm

26 Lifestyle turns to violence and disillusioment
Youths embrace new and different religious experiences Zen Buddhism offered enlightenment though meditation, self-contemplaation, and intuition Spiritual guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi of India influenced many to embrace transcendental meditation Communities change to violence and disillusionment Charles Manson and his “family” kill 5 in Hollywood Widespread use of drugs led to overdoses, drug dependence, and mental and physical breakdowns Rock singer Janis Joplin and guitarist Jimi Hendrix died of drug overdoses Hippies ran out of resources to support themselves and turn to panhandling, welfare, and food stamps

27 A Changing Culture Andy Warhol led rise of pop art
Bright silk-screen portraits of soup cans, Marilyn Monroe and other icons of mass culture New art built around popular culture Pop-Art3.html pop-andy-warhol-campbells-soup

28 New Fashions Longer hair, beards, mustaches for men
Colorful and comfortable clothes for women Blue jeans become wardrobe staple for everyone groovyGear.htm fd_70smale.htm

29 British Invasion by the Beatles
Rock ‘n’ roll developed from African-American rhythm and blues music Captivated the teenagers of the 1950s but evolved Led by the popularity of The Beatles Inspired numerous other bands

30 Woodstock Art and Music Fair
August, 1969 in upstate New York Free music festival for 3 days and nights 400,000 show up for “Human Be-in” Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Joe Cocker, Joan Baez, the Grateful Dead, and Jefferson Airplane appeared on stage musiikki.html

31 Changing Social Attitudes
Sexual Revolution: view sexual behavior and human relationships more casually Mass culture openly address former taboo subjects Divorce rate doubled Homosexual organizations openly fight for equal rights Hollywood produces more sexually explicit films results in rating system for movies

32 Changes spawn conservative backlash
Casual and permissive social behavior condemned by many Counterculture and antiwar movement perceived as promoting lawlessness and chaos Conservative backlash helped to elect Richard Nixon

33 Bibliography Danzer, Gerald A. et al. The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Dallas: McDougal Little, 1999. Pictures retrieved from

34 1960s: An era of change Vickie Looser Summer, 2004

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