4 Tunicates are members of the subphylum Urochordata Tunicates OverviewTunicates are members of the subphylum UrochordataNicknamed "Sea Squirts"Has body cavity that holds the atriumBilaterally SymmetricalNervous system degenerates after larval stage. Some cells detect light and gravity allowing it to settle on a substrate. Limited nervous system in adult stage. Member of Urochordata subphylumNicknamed "Sea Squirts"Similar to other chordates while in larva stageUses tail muscles and notochord to swim Settles on substrateLight and gravity cuesRadical metamorphosis where Chordate characteristics disappearBilaterally Symmetrical
5 Digestive, Excretory, and Circulatory Systems Incurrent siphon sucks waterAtrium filters foodWater and waste excreted through excurrent siphonFood travels from esophagus to stomachSiphons also function as circulatory systemDigestive and Execretory Info: Incurrent siphon to bring in water passes through pharyngeal slits into atrium that filters particles of water. The filtered water then passes out an excurrent siphon. The atrium has a mucous net that traps food particles and cilia that transports them to the esophagus. Food travels from esophagus to stomach and after it is process it leaves through the intestine and finally the anus and excurrent siphon.Circulatory InfoCirculates water with incurrent and excurrent siphons. The water is sucked in and it brings other stuff with it. The two siphons are the only modes of absorption and excretion.
6 Locomotion/Musculature Uses tail muscles and notochord to swim as a larvaeExcurrent siphon can do jet propulsion
7 Skeletal Type/Sensory Structures Larval stage has notochord and dorsal, hollow nerve chordIn adult form the skeleton is lost and resorbedLight and gravity sensing cellsLarval stage has notochord and dorsal, hollow nerve chord but as the tunicate goes through radical metamorphosis they are resorbed.
8 Reproduction Hermaphrodite = both male/female Settles on substrate Light and gravity cuesChordate characteristics disappear as adult
9 Gas Exchange Water is sucked in and pushed out through siphons Diffusion
10 Sample Example Organisms Class: Ascidiacea Order: Pleurogona Suborder: Stolidobranchia Family: Pyuridae Genus: Halocynthia Species: H. roretziSea Pineapple
11 Lancelets/Cephalochordata In the lavaral form lancelets develop a notochord, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord, numerous pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail.Body Cavity is present.Bilateral SymmetryFeed on plankton.Adult lancelets up to 5 cm longFrequently swim to new locationsLanclets- globally rare
12 Nervous System Lancelets develop a hollow nerve cord Have slightly swollen tip on the anterior end of their dorsal nerve cordHowever, no true brain
13 Circulatory SystemWater enters mouth and passes through the pharyngeal slits into the atriumThe atrium is a chamber that vents to the outside by way of the atrioporeNo heart and blood cells
14 Digestive System/Excretory System Mucous net around pharyngeal slits remove small food particles from seawaterCiliary pumping draws these particles into the mouthTrapped food enters the intestineFood finally leaves through anus
15 Locomotion/Musculature Swimming mechanism of fishesCoordinated contraction of musclesSerially arranged segmental muscles Muscle segments develop from blocks of mesoderm-SomitesUndulatory (wavelike) movements
16 Skeletal Type/Sensory Structures As larvae develop a dorsal, hollow nerve cord and notochordSomites found along each side of notochordTentacles by mouth act as sensory devices, and as a water filterNo eyes, or complex sensory structures
17 Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Lanclets have separate sexes - Male & FemaleEggs and Sperm released into waterFertilized eggs develop into larvae
18 Gas Exchange Diffusion across external body surface Pharynx and Pharyngeal slits play a minor role in gas exchange
19 Lancelets are globally rare, but can reach large densities (5000/m2) in areas like Tampa Bay
20 QUIZ TIME! 1) Which of following outline the notochord, and are prevalent in all chordate embryos?A. AtriumsB. SomitesC. SiphonsD. Tunics
21 QUIZ TIME! 1) Which of following outline the notochord, and are prevalent in all chordate embryos?A. AtriumsB. SomitesC. SiphonsD. Tunics
22 QUIZ TIME! 2) Mature tunicates are able to move by A. their muscles. B. clinging to other animals as they pass by.C. teleportaion. D. jet propulsion.
23 QUIZ TIME! 2) Mature tunicates are able to move by A. their muscles. B. clinging to other animals as they pass by.C. teleportaion. D. jet propulsion
24 QUIZ TIME! 3. Chordates are A. bilaterally symmetrical. B. radially symmetrical.C. not symmetrical at all.D. aesthetically symmetrical.
25 QUIZ TIME! 3. Chordates are A. bilaterally symmetrical. B. radially symmetrical.C. not symmetrical at all. D. aesthetically symmetrical.
26 QUIZ TIME! 4. Tunicates _____ and Lancelets _____. A. are sexual; are asexualB. are asexual; are sexualC. have separate sexes; are hermaphroditesD. are hermaphrodites; have separate sexes
27 QUIZ TIME! 4. Tunicates _____ and Lancelets _____. A. are sexual; are asexualB. are asexual; are sexualC. have separate sexes; are hermaphroditesD. are hermaphrodites; have separate sexes