Presentation on theme: "Hraba and Grant (1970) Aim? To investigate the findings of Clark and Clark’s study on Racial Preference and Racial Identification.(1939) Background? Clark."— Presentation transcript:
Hraba and Grant (1970) Aim? To investigate the findings of Clark and Clark’s study on Racial Preference and Racial Identification.(1939) Background? Clark and Clark had found that black children in 1939 generally preferred white dolls to black dolls. This was interpreted as meaning they would rather be white.
Hraba and Grant Location? Lincoln, Nebraska N.B. 1.4% of the population of Lincoln was black. Sample? 89 black children from 5 public schools 71 white children drawn randomly from the same classrooms
Hraba and Grant (1970) Methodology? Lab. experiment (replication of Clark and Clark’s) Children asked to choose between black and white dolls. I.V.? Black and white children The black children were divided into light, medium and dark black. The effect of age was also investigated What kind of a laboratory experiment? A quasi or natural experiment
Hraba and Grant (1970) D.V. ? 1.Racial preference. 2.Racial identification 3.Racial self-identification How could these be operationalised? (i.e. measured)
1. Racial preference Give me the doll that… 1...you want to play with. 2...is a nice doll. 3...looks bad. 4...is a nice colour. Any comments about these questions? Remember there were 4 dolls, 2 black and 2 white.
2. Racial identification Give me the doll that… 1...looks like a white child. 2...looks like a coloured child. 3...looks like a negro child.
3. Racial self-identification Give me the doll that…. …looks like you.
4. Behavioural consequences What race is your best friend? N.B. Teachers were also asked about the race of the best friend of each child involved.
Results! See handout for detail here Note the difference between Hraba and Grant’s results compared to the original study by Clark and Clark. You need to be able to postulate reasons for this difference. Note the slightly different use of the term ethnocentric here.
Strengths of the study Exact replication as far as possible: standardised procedure. Used white children also as a control. Controlled for the race of the experimenter. Investigated real life preferences. Statistical analysis carried out on the results. Using dolls avoided ethical issues.
Weaknesses of the study Not ecologically valid: used dolls + choices didn’t relate to friendships in real ife. Demand characteristics were present, particularly as there were 4 dolls and 4 questions. Hence 73% inconsistency in the answers. Forced choice does not allow for any degree of preference. We don’t know WHY the children made the choices they did. Ethical issues with some of the questions. Study not carried out in same place/s as original. Did some of the dolls look strange?
Homework Read the handout in detail Read about the study in your textbook/s. Test yourself by using the quizzes on holah.co.uk and looking up past exam questions on this study. Write yourself a fact file from memory. You MUST learn what the questions are and also the general tendency of the answers. ASK if unsure about any aspect of the study.