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Chapter 4: Ecosystems, Ecology, and Food Webs

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1 Chapter 4: Ecosystems, Ecology, and Food Webs
Doug Friedman, Jane Beiner, Shayna Benavidez

2 Article I: Ecology & Life

3 Ecology Ecology in Greek is “house or place to live”
Study between organisms & their environment Examining how organisms interact with their environment

4 Organisms Forms of Life which can be classified into species
5-100 million species, most are insects and microorganisms About 1.8 million named

5 Wild & Domesticated Species
A species that lives in its natural environment (where it’s ancestors lived) Domestic A species that was removed from its natural environment and placed in an environment that supports the needs and wants of HUMANS

6 Some Words to Know Populations Genetic Diversity Habitat
Organisms that are part of the same species and live in the same area of space Genetic Diversity Each different organism has a different genetic make-up Habitat The place where a population lives. Each one can very in size and place. Biological Community A population that consists of a variety of species that live in a particular place. Use Overhead fig 4-2

7 One more Word Ecosystem
A community of different species interacting with other species & their non-living environment Natural or Artificial

8 LIFE! Living things are made up of one or more calls containing DNA
DNA is the instructions for making new cells and amino acids Metabolism Chemical reaction that capture and transform matter and energy from the environment to supply the organism

9 More LIFE Homeostasis Reproduction
Maintains optimal conditions despite changes to the environment Reproduction Asexual Single cell division, or self fertilization Sexual Organisms exchange gametes and fertilize the ova to create offspring.

10 Article II: Earth’s Life-Support Systems

11 Layers Core Mantle Crust Fe and Trace N Solid & Liquid Fe, Si, O, Mg
Solid and Liquid Responsible for continental drift Crust Fossil Fuels Where we life

12 Spheres Lithosphere Atmosphere Bio-Ecosphere Upper mantle and crust
Thin envelope of air around the lithosphere Bio-Ecosphere Biotic and Abiotic Habitats

13 What is Needed to Sustain Life?
One way flow of energy EX: Sunlight through feeding cycles, then into environment and eventually back out as infrared rays Cycle of Matter and Nutrients Gravity

14 Cycles Carbon Phosphorus Nitrogen Water Oxygen
CO2 from the atmosphere and earth’s water. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Phosphorus DNA transfers Nitrogen Atmospheric N to the soil, helps with amino acids Water Storage, evaporation, precipitation, runoff Oxygen

15 Open or Closed? Closed Open
ENERGY is exchanged with the environment (earth) Open ENERGY and MATTER is exchanged with the environment (animals)

16 The Sun Photosynthesis Earth gets 1 billionth of the sun’s energy
CO2 + H2O + sunlight  C6H12O6 + O2 Earth gets 1 billionth of the sun’s energy 28% is reflected into space .023% gets absorbed by plants

17 Article III: Ecosystem Concepts

18 Intro Biomes Basic Zones Large Regions Characterized by features Land
Ecotone (transition) Aquatic

19 Components of an Ecosystem
“tics” Biotic Living part of ecosystem Abiotic Non-living part of ecosystem

20 ABIOTIC Examples Air Water Nutrients Solar Energy Precipitation Wind
Altitude Latitude Frequency of Fire Nature of Soil Water Currents Concentrations

21 Laws and Factors Limiting Factor Principle Law of Tolerance
The existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by that species Limiting Factor Principle Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can prevent growth of a species

22 BIOTIC Autotrophs-Producers Heterotrophs-Consumers Photosynthesis
Chemosysthesis Heterotrophs-Consumers Herbivores-Primary Carnivores-Secondary-Tertiary Scavengers eat already dead animals

23 Continued Decomposers Break down dead organisms into nutrients
Detritivors eat dead animals Bacteria Fungi

Aerobic Respiration C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O +ENERGY

25 Article IV: Food Webs and Energy Flow in Ecosystems

26 A few Definitions Trophic Level Biomass Feeding level
Dry weight which is not counted with water because water is not a source of energy Only small amounts of what is eaten is actually converted into biomass

27 ENERGY Some energy is lost from trophic level to trophic level
5-20% of energy is transferred from level to level The more trophic levels the greater cumulative loss of flow (pyramid of energy flow) The energy flow triangle shows earth could support more people if we ate grains instead of grazing animals

28 ENERGY (ct’d) There energy loss is so large we can only support 4-5 trophic levels Gross Primary Productivity (GPP): The rate it takes ecosystems to convert solar energy into chemical energy as biomass Net Primary Productivity (NPP): It is what is left of the biomass after the organism has used parts of it to stay alive, and reproduce

29 ENERGY (ct’d) NPP is available to other organisms as food
The earth’s total NPP is the upper limit determining the planets carrying capacity for all species Most Productivity: Estuaries Swamps Marshes Tropical Rain Forest

30 ENERGY (ct’d) Least Productive:
Open Ocean Tundra Desert 59% of NPP from Land, 41% of NPP from Water Open ocean contributes a lot to NPP but phytoplankton is not reasonably harvestable HUMANS waste 27% of potential NPP and 40% of actual


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