2 AP BiologyBIG IDEA #1The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS1A – Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.1B – Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.1C – Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.1D – The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
3 Organisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations. AP BiologyNatural selectionEvolutionary change is a product of the process of natural selectionOrganisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations.
4 Evolution explains unity & diversity AP BiologyEvolution explains unity & diversityUnitywhat do organisms have in common & why do similarities exist?common biochemistry & physiologyevolutionary relationshipsconnected through common ancestorDiversitybut why are there differences?natural selectionadaptations allow different individuals to survive in different environments
5 "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." AP Biology"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."Theodosius Dobzhansky: Integrating Genetics and EvolutionTheodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian geneticist who moved to the United States, provided laboratory evidence for natural selection and variation where previously there had been only field observation. Dobzhansky's work with Drosophila, or fruit flies, provided new evidence that supported Darwin's theory that natural selection, acting on genetic variation in populations, is a driving force in evolution.-- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973Geneticist, Columbia University( )
6 AP BiologyBIG IDEA #2Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS2A – Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.2B – Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.2C – Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.2D – Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.2E – Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.
7 Energy transfer Life is an open system DECOMPOSERS RULE, too! AP BiologyEnergy transferLife is an open systemneed input of energyenergy flows throughenergy is captured and stored in molecules via photosynthesisenergy is released as heat and through cellular respirationneed input of materialsnutrients are recyclednutrientsENTROPY RULES!DECOMPOSERS RULE, too!
8 You think they’re eating… They’re harvesting energy! AP BiologyEnergy utilizationHomeostasisGrowthReproductionYou think they’re eating… They’re harvesting energy!
9 AP BiologyForm follows functionThe alignment of structure & function is seen at all levels of biologyorganorganismcellorganelle
10 MembranesMembranes separate the internal from external AND compartmentalize the internal environment.
11 RegulationAP BiologyOrganisms need to maintain a “steady state” in the face of changing conditionsmaintain homeostasisachieve this through feedbackmonitor the body like a thermostatturn on when it’s needed, off when its not
13 Complex InteractionsFrom cells to ecosystems – all life is influenced by biotic and abiotic factors.Life is universalcommon biochemistry & physiologyPhotosynthesis, Cellular RespirationFeedback loopsLife is diversenatural selectionadaptations allow different individuals to survive in different environments
14 Timing All life follows a tempo There is a specific sequence of timing and coordination that allows for life to develop, grow and reproduce.
15 BIG IDEA #3Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes.ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS3A – Heritable information provides for continuity of life.3B – Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.3C – The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.3D – Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.3E – Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.
16 You can make more, a lot like you! AP BiologyContinuity & changeContinuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNADNA – the genetic material – carries biological information from one generation to the nextTRAIYou can make more, a lot like you!
18 BIG IDEA #4Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS4A – Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.4B – Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.4C – Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
20 Interdependence All parts of the whole are interdependent AP BiologyAll parts of the whole are interdependentCell needs organelles…Polymers needs monomers…Populations need other populations in a community…
21 Organizing systems Eastern gray squirrel AP BiologyMaking sense out of the diversityHierarchical schemeEastern gray squirrelSciurus carolinensis