Presentation on theme: "MODULE 3 INVESTIGATING HUMAN AND SOCIL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN."— Presentation transcript:
MODULE 3 INVESTIGATING HUMAN AND SOCIL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN
THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF RESEARCH Nature of Research Research is a careful, systematic, patient investigation undertaken to discover or establish facts and relationships. (C.M. Charles 1988). Research is therefore: Rigorous Carefully done Systematic Empirical Logical
Characteristics Research originates with a question or problem. Research requires the clear articulation of a goal. Research follows a specific plan of procedure. Research is guided by a specific research problem, question or hypothesis. Research requires certain critical assupmtions. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt to solve the problem that initiated the research.
Purpose of Research 1. Generation of new knowledge The subject of study is relatively new and unstudied. 2. Validation of theory Testing, modifying and expanding theories. (A theory is an idea that attempts to explain reality). 3. Solving problems An investigation is commissioned into a issue with a view to remedying the situation based on the research findings. This is referred to as applied research.
Reliability and Validity in Research Reliability Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test or any measuring procedure gives the same result on repeated trials. Without the agreement of independent observers able to replicate research procedures, or the ability to use research tools and procedures that yield consistent measurements, researchers would be unable to satisfactorily draw conclusions, formulate theories or make claims about the generalizability of their research. N.B. Data can be reliable without being valid, e.g. statistics on church attendance may be reliable, but they do not necessarily give a true picture of people’s commitment to religion.
Validity Validity refers to the extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration. Data are valid if they provide a true picture of what is being studied. Researchers should be concerned with both external and internal validity. External validity: refers to the extent to which the results of a study are generalizable. Internal validity: refer to (1) the rigour with which the study was conducted, (e.g., the study’s design, the care taken to conduct measurements, decisions concerning what was or was not measured), a (2) the extent to which the designers of the study have taken into account alternative explanations for any causal relations they explore.
Types of Research Historical Research Describes what was. Entails investigating, recording, analysing and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalisations that help us to understand both the past and the present, and possible implications for the future. Descriptive Research This type of research describes, records, analyses and interprets conditions that presently exist. It entails some type of comparison or contrast, and attempts to discover relationships between existing variables.
Experimental Research This type of research focuses on variable relationships and describes what happens when the variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. Deliberate manipulation ia always a part of the experimental method.