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The kidneys are reddish brown and lie retroperitonially high up and posterior abdominal wall on either side of the vertebral column; The R. kidney is.

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Presentation on theme: "The kidneys are reddish brown and lie retroperitonially high up and posterior abdominal wall on either side of the vertebral column; The R. kidney is."— Presentation transcript:


2 The kidneys are reddish brown and lie retroperitonially high up and posterior abdominal wall on either side of the vertebral column; The R. kidney is slightly lower than L. On medial concave surface each kidney has a vertical slit or hilum through which two branches of renal artery, the ureter, and the renal veins pass to the kidney.

3 Each kidney has  a dark brown outer coretx and  a light brown inner medulla. The medulla is composed of renal pyramids, each of whose apices end in the renal papilla, which open into minor calyces, further into major calyces and which finally emptys into renal pelvis. Renal pelvis: extended portion of ureters which open into urinary bladder

4 Each kidney has a supra-renal (adrenal) gland antero-superiorly. R.Kidney:  Liver,R.colic flexure, anteriorly  12 th rib posteriorly L.Kidney:  The spleen, stomach, pancreas, L.colic flexure, and the coils of jejunum,anteriorly  11 th rib posteriorly

5 Blood supply of Kidneys The renal arteries arise from aorta at L2 vertebrae level. Renal artery 5 segmental arteries lobar arteries(1 for each pyramid) Each lobar artery 2 or 3 interlobar arteries arcuate arteries at the junction of cortex and medulla. Arcuate arteries several interlobular arteries afferent glomerular arterioles


7 Ureters Muscular tubes extending from renal pelvis to the posterior surface of urinary bladder. Blood supply:  Upper end: renal artery  Middle end:testicular or ovarian artery  In the pelvic region: superior veical artery

8 Urinary bladder Situated immediately behind the pubic bone within pelvis. Strong muscular receptacle for storage of urine. Max capacity 500ml Empty baldder lies entirely within pelvis;It may project upto hypogastrium when full. Bladder wall has 3 layers of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle fibres known as detrusor muscles. Sphincter guarding the ureter opening into bladder is sphincter vesicae.


10 The superior and inferior vesical arteries, branches of internal iliac arteries supplies the bladder. The parasympathetic nerves,  stimulate contraction of detrusor muscle  inhibit closure of sphinter vesicae In males the sphinchter vesicae closure is very actively stimulated during ejaculation by the sympathetic nervous system.

11 Scrotum Outpouching of the lower part of anterior abdominal wall. It contains  Testes  Epididymides  Lower end of spermatic cords

12 The wall of the scortum has Skin Superficial fascia Dartos muscle(smooth muscle) External spermatic fascia Cremasteric fascia Internal spermatic fascia and tunica vaginalis

13 Superficial fascia(colles fascia) is continuous with scarpas fascia which is the membranous layer of anterior abdominal wall Dartos smooth muscle is innervated by sympathetic nerve fibres Both these contribute to the septum passing in the middle of scrotum to separate testes from each other.

14 Spermatic fascia lie beneath the superficial fascia and are derived from 3 layers anterior abdominal wall muscles on each side. The cremastic fascia is derived from the cremastic smooth muscle which contributes to the cremastic reflex. The tunica vaginalis is a closed sac covering the testes, seperating it from abdominal cavity.

15 Testis is a firm, mobile organ lying within the scrotum. covered by a touch fibrous capsule tunica albugenia Seperated into lobules. 1-3 seminiferous tubules within each lobule. Seminiferous tubules rete testis epididymis

16 Normal spermatogenesis can occur only if the testes are 3°C lower than body temp. It is acheived by the pampiniform plexus- plexus formed by the testicular veins

17 Epididymis is a firm coiled tube nearly 6m in the posterior aspect of testis. Stores sperm Maturation of sperm takes place Nourish the maturing sperm The epididymis continues as vas deferens which enters the spermatic cord.

18 Vas deferens Cordlike structure that can be palpated between finger and thumb in the upper part of scrotum It transports the sperms from the epididymis to urethra

19 Testicular artery, branch of abdominal aorta supplies the testis

20 Spermatic cord It is a collection of structures that pass to and fro the testis. Covering layers is composed of,  External spermatic fascia  Crmasteric fascia  Internal spermatic fascia It contains vas deferens Testicular artery Testicular veins Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve


22 Spermatic cord passes through the inguinal canal Inguinal canal is an oblique passage through lower part of ant abdomnal wall.  In males, spermatic cord to pass from abdomen to testes  In femals, round lig of uterus passes from uterus to the labium majus. Deep inguinal ring: superior opening Superficial inguinal ring: inferior opening

23 The canal is about 4 cm long in adult Deep inguinal ring:  oval, superior opening in the fascia transversalis  lies just 1.3 cm above the inguinal ligament.  The margins of the ring give attachment to the internal spermatic fascia The superficial inguinal ring:  triangular shaped defect in aponeurosis of external oblique muscle  Lies just superior and medial to the pubic tubercle.  Gives attachment to the external spermatic fascia



26 Monday march 1 st anatomy test Muscular system Epithelial Tissue Histology Muscle Contraction Nervous System Connective Tissue Fetal Skull Cartilage Skull Pre-med Thorax,heart,respiratory system Abdomen Organs in the abdomen Urogenital system 1 +urogenital sytem 2

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