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Regional anatomy of thorax

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1 Regional anatomy of thorax
山东大学医学院 解剖教研室 李振华

2 Parts and regions of the thorax
Boundaries Superiorly-jugular notch, sternoclavicular joint, superior border of clavicle, acromion, spinous processes of C7 Inferiorly-xiphoid process, costal arch, 12th and 11th ribs, vertebra T12 Regions Thoracic wall Thoracic cavity

3 Landmarks of thorax Jugular notch corresponds with
The 2th thoracic vertebra in male, the 3th thoracic vertebra in female Sternal angle corresponds with Connects 2nd costal cartilage laterally The lower border of 4th thoracic vertebra The bifurcation of trachea in the adult The beginning of aortic arch which ends posteriorly at the same level The esophagus is crossed by the left main bronchus

4 Landmarks of thorax Xiphoid process-xiphisternal synchondrosis lies opposite the body of the 9th thoracic vertebra Clavicle Inferior fossa of clavicle Coracoid process Ribs and intercostal spaces Costal arch Infrasternal angle Xiphocostal angle Papillae

5 Thoracic wall Superficial structures Skin Superficial fascia
Superficial aa. Superficial vv. Thoracoepigastric v. Lateral thoracic v. Superficial nn. Supraclavicular n. Anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal n.

6 Lymphatic drainage of breast
Into pectoral ln. from lateral and central parts of breast Into apical and supraclavicular ln. from superior part of breast Into parasternal ln. from medial part of breast Into interpectoral ln. from deep part of breast The lymphatic capillaries of breast form an anastomosing network which is continuous across the midline with that of the opposite side and with that of the abdominal wall

7 Thoracic wall Deep structures Deep fascia Muscles of thorax
Superficial layer Deep layer—clavipectoral fascia Muscles of thorax Subclavius Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Intercostales externi Intercostales interni Intercostales intimi Endothoracic fascia 胸内筋膜

8 Intercostal space Posterior intercostal v. Posterior intercostal a.
Intercostal n. Technique for thoroacocentesis (in midaxillary line) Intercostal nerve block

9 Internal thoracic vessels
Internal thoracic a.&v 胸廓内动脉和静脉 Descends into thorax 1.2cm lateral to edge of sternum Ends at the sixth costal cartilage by dividing musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries Parasternal ln. 胸骨旁淋巴结

10 The Mediastinum 纵隔

11 The Mediastinum 纵隔 Concept
All of organs between the left and right mediastinal pleurae is called mediastinum. It extends from the sternum in front to the vertebral column behind, and from the thoracic inlet above to the diaphragm below.

12 Subdivisions of mediastinum
Superior mediastinum 上纵隔 Inferior mediastinum下纵隔 Anterior mediastinum 前纵隔 Middle mediastinum 中纵隔 Posterior mediastinum 后纵隔

13 Left side of mediastnum 纵隔左侧面
Left subclavian a. Thoracic duct Left vagus n. Aortic arch Left recurrent n. Thoracic aorta Phrenic n. & pericardiacophrenic a. Sympathetic trunk Root of lung Pericardium Greater splanchnic n Esophagus

14 Right side of mediastnum 纵隔右侧面
Trachea Right vagus n. Superior vena cava Arch of azygos v. Phrenic n. & pericardiacophrenic a. Azygos v. Root of lung Sympathetic trunk Esophagus Pericardium Inferior vena cava

15 Superior mediastinum 上纵隔

16 Superior mediastinum 上纵隔
Locating-from inlet of thorax to plane extending from level of sternal angle anteriorly to lower border of T4 vertebra posterioly Contents Superficial layer Thymus Three veins Left brachiocephelic v. Right brachiocephelic v. Superior vena cava

17 Superior mediastinum 上纵隔
Contents Middle layer Aotic arch and its three branches Phrenic n. Vagus n.

18 Superior mediastinum 上纵隔
Contents Posterior layer Trachea Esophagus Thoracic duct

19 Relations of aortic arch
Anteriorly and to the left Pleura Lung Phrenic n. Pericardiacophrenic vessels Vagus n. Posteriorly and to the right Trachea Esophagus Left recurrent n. Thoracic duct Deep cardiac plexus

20 Relations of aortic arch
Superiorly Its three branches Left brachiocephalic v. thymus Inferiorly Pulmonary a. Arterial ligament Left recurrent n. Left principal bronchus Superficial cardiac plexus

21 Triangle of ductus arteriosus 动脉导管三角
Boundaries Phrenic n. Left vagus n. Left pulmonary a. Contents Arterial ligament Left recurrent n. Superficial cardiac plexuses

22 Triangle of ductus arteriosus 动脉导管三角

23 Inferior mediastinum 下纵隔

24 Inferior mediastinum 下纵隔
Anterior mediastinum 前纵隔 Location-posterior to body of sternum and attached costal cartilages, anterior to heart and pericardium Contents Fat Remnants of thymus gland Anterior mediastinal lymph nodes

25 Inferior mediastinum 下纵隔
Middle mediastinum 中纵隔 Location-between anterior mediastinum and posterior mediastinum Contents Heart and pericardium Beginning or termination of great vessels Phrenic nerves Pericardiacophrenic vessels Lymph nodes

26 Inferior mediastinum 下纵隔
Posterior mediastinum 后纵隔 Location-posterior to heart and pericardium, anterior to vertebrae T5-T12

27 Inferior mediastinum 下纵隔
Posterior mediastinum 后纵隔 Contents: Esophagus Vagus n. Thoracic aorta Azygos system of veins Thoracic duct Thoracic sympathetic trunk Posterior mediastinal lymph nodes

28 Relations of esophagus
Anteriorly Trachea Bifurcation of trachea Left principal branchus Left recurrent n. Right pulmonary a. Anterior esophageal plexus Pericardium Left atrium Diaphragm

29 Relations of esophagus
Posteriorly Posterior esophageal plexus Thoracic aorta Thoracic duct Azygos v. Hemiazygos v. Accessory hemiazygos v. Right posterior intercostal v.

30 Relations of esophagus
Left Left common carotid a. Left subclavian a. Aortic arch Thoracic aorta Superior part of thoracic duct Right Arch of azygos v.

31 Relations of thoracic aorta
Anteriorly Left root of lung Pericardium Esophagus Posterior Hemiazygos v. Accessory hemiazygos v. Right Azygos v. Thoracic duct Left-mediastinal pleura

32 Mediastinal spaces 纵隔间隙
Retrosternal space 胸骨后间隙 lies beween sternum and endothoracic fascia Pretracheal space 气管前间隙 lies within superior mediastinum, between trachea, bifurcation of trachea and aortic arch Retroesophagus space食管后间隙 lies within superior mediastinum, beween esophagus and endothoracic fascia

33 ★You must identify follow structures!
Thoracic wall Intercostales externi Intercostales interni Posterior intercostal a. Intercostal n. Internal thoracic a. Diaphragm Central tendon Aortic hiatus Esophageal hiatus Vena cava foramen Costodiaphragmatic recesse Superior mediastinum Left brachiocephelic v. Right brachiocephelic v. Superior vena cava Aortic arch Brachiocephalic trunk Left common carotid artery Left subclavian a. Phrenic n. Vagus n. Left recurrent n. Arterial ligament Trachea

34 ★You must identify follow structures!
Lung Apex of lung Base of lung Hilum of lung Root of lung Cardiac notch Lingual in left lung Horizontal and oblique fissures Superior, middle and inferior lobs of right lung Superior and inferior lobs of left lung Middle mediastinum Pericardium Phrenic nerves Posterior mediastinum Esophagus Vagus n. Thoracic aorta Azygos veins Thoracic duct Thoracic sympathetic trunk Greater splanchnic n

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