Presentation on theme: "Early Society in East Asia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Early Society in East Asia Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to 600 BCEEarly Society in East Asia
2 The Four Ancient River Valley Civilizations The first civilizations arose along the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and Huang He Rivers.
3 The Great Chinese Rivers Chinese civilization began in the valleys of the Huang He (aka, Yellow River) and Yangzi (aka, Chang) rivers.Beyond this heartland were regions with harsher climates, occupied mostly by nomads, who sometimes attacked Chinese cities.When outsiders invaded, Chinese civilization often absorbed them.
4 River of SorrowThe Huang River valley provided the fertile soil Neolithic people needed to farm.The Huang is also known as the Yellow River, because of the volume of yellow loess soil that washed into its waters.The river got the nickname “China’s Sorrow” because it often overflowed.
5 The Ancient Dynasties of China Xia*ca B.C.E.Organized through village networkHereditary monarchyFlood controlShangB.C.E.ZhouB.C.E.
6 The Shang (pr: ‘Shong’) The first organized dynasty, the Shang, arose around 1766 B.C. and lasted until 1122 B.C.The dynasty was organized by clans.Most members of Shang society were peasants who led grueling lives working the fields.The cities supported artisans skilled in bronze work.2Shang Tang
7 The Mandate of HeavenThe Shang dynasty ended in 1122 B.C. in a rebellion led by two Zhou warriors.The Zhou claimed a divine right to rule, calling it the Mandate of Heaven.7
8 The Dynastic CycleLater, the Chinese argued that the dynastic cycle reflected heaven’s judgment of good and bad governments.8
9 The Zhou (pr.Ch-ou) Dynasty No law codes: rule by decree“Mandate of heaven”Aggregation of villages opposed to Shang leadershipDecentralization of authorityDevelopment of cheap iron weaponry ends Shang monopoly on bronzeZhou Wang
10 Under the Zhou dynasty, China became a feudal state. Chinese FeudalismUnder the Zhou dynasty, China became a feudal state.Feudalism was a system in which local lords governed their own lands, but owed military service to the ruler.After 800 B.C., feudal lords had more power than Zhou kings.10
11 Zhou Decline: Historical Theme Decentralized leadership style allows for building of regional powersIncreasing local independence, refusal to pay Zhou taxesIron metallurgy allows for widespread creation of weaponryNorthern invaders weaken Zhou dynasty, beginning eighth century B.C.E.Internal dissention: the Period of the Warring States ( B.C.E.)
12 Social Stratification in China Ruling classes great advantagePalatial compounds, luxurious lifestyleSupported by agricultural surplus, tax revenuesDefended by monopoly on bronze weaponryHereditary privilegeSupport class of artisans, craftsmenEvidence of long-distance trade, merchant classLarge class of semi-servile peasantsSlave class
13 The Patriarchal Family Devotion to family, ancestor venerationConnection of spirit world to physical worldRitual sacrificesFather ritual head of family ritesEarlier prominence of individual female leaders fades in later Shang, Zhou dynasties
14 Oracles Bones & Early Chinese Writing Used for communicating with spirit world, determining futureQuestion written on animal bones, turtle shellsThen heated over fire; cracks examined for omensEarly archaeological evidence of Chinese writingEvolution of Chinese scriptPictograph to ideograph
15 Chinese PolytheismBy the time of the Shang dynasty, the Chinese had developed complex religious beliefs.Many of these beliefs were practiced for thousands of yearsThey prayed to many gods and nature spirits.They called on their ancestors for good fortune and made offerings such as food to influence gods such as the great Shang Di.
16 Cultural Contributions The Shang and Zhou periods produced many cultural achievements.The Chinese learned to make silk by 2640 B.C. It became their most valuable export.Chinese writing appeared 4,000 years ago on oracle bones.Chinese writing became the art form calligraphy.16
17 Chinese writing fostered unity among diverse peoples. Writing Facilitates UnityChinese writing fostered unity among diverse peoples.Under the Zhou, the first books were made.One them, The Book of Songs, depicted both farm and royal life in poetry and song.
18 The Steppes of Central Asia Steppe nomadsPoor lands for cultivation, extensive herding activities (pastoral nomads/farming)Horses domesticated ca B.C.E., bronze metallurgy in 2900 B.C.E.Extensive trade with sedentary cultures in ChinaTensions: frequent raidingAncestors of future Turks & Mongolians