Presentation on theme: "Early Childhood Outcomes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Early Childhood Outcomes What Is It?What does it mean for Alaska?What does it mean for my District/ Program?What does it mean for Families?
2 PART review findings for Part C and Part B Preschool “While the program has met its goal relating to the number of children served, it has not collected information on how well the program is doing to improve the educational and developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers served.”Part B“OSEP has no performance information on preschool children with disabilities served by this program.”
3 Public Policy Context Age of accountability Accountability increasingly means looking at results, not just processOffice of Special Education Programs (OSEP is under increasing pressure to produce outcome data on children participating in early intervention and early childhood special education programs)
4 Important principles … Overall goals for all childrento function successfully in home, Kindergarten and communityto function at the level of their typically-developing, same-age peersFocus on functionInterrelation among areas of development -NOT specific developmental domainsUse of skills in context -authentic assessment
5 Required: Summary of children’s progress in 3 “Child Outcome” areas Positive social-emotional skills (including social relationships)Acquisition and use of knowledge and skills (including skills in early language/ communication and in early literacy)Use of appropriate behaviors to meet one’s own needs(20 U.S.C (a)(3)(A))
6 OSEP’s Reporting Categories For each Child Outcome areathe percent of children with IEPs/IFSPs nationally who:a. Did not improve functioningb. Improved functioning, but not sufficient to move nearer to functioning comparable to same-aged peersc. Improved functioning to a level nearer to same-aged peers but did not reach itd. Improved functioning to reach a level comparable to same-aged peerse. Maintained functioning at a level comparable to same-aged peers3 outcomes x 5 measures = 15 numbers
7 Part B ResultsA. Positive social-emotional skills (including social relationships):Number of children% of childrena. Percent of preschool children who did not improve functioning0.0%b. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning but not sufficient to move nearer to functioning comparable to same-aged peers66.2%c. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning to a level nearer to same-aged peers but did not reach6769.1%d. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning to reach a level comparable to same-aged peers1515.5%e. Percent of preschool children who maintained functioning at a level comparable to same-aged peers99.3%Total97100.0%
8 Part B ResultsB. Acquisition and use of knowledge and skills (including early language/communication and early literacy):Number of children% of childrena. Percent of preschool children who did not improve functioning0.0%b. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning but not sufficient to move nearer to functioning comparable to same-aged peers88.2%c. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning to a level nearer to same-aged peers but did not reach6061.9%d. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning to reach a level comparable to same-aged peers2222.7%e. Percent of preschool children who maintained functioning at a level comparable to same-aged peers77.2%Total97100.0%
9 Part B Results C. Use of appropriate behaviors to meet their needs: Number of children% of childrena. Percent of preschool children who did not improve functioning33.1%b. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning but not sufficient to move nearer to functioning comparable to same-aged peers44.1%c. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning to a level nearer to same-aged peers but did not reach5657.7%d. Percent of preschool children who improved functioning to reach a level comparable to same-aged peers2222.7%e. Percent of preschool children who maintained functioning at a level comparable to same-aged peers1212.4%Total97100.0%
10 DVD showFederal Reporting RequirementsChapter 2 of DVD
11 Why Collect Outcome Data Data on outcomes are important for state and local purposesTo document program effectivenessIncrease fundingImprove programsIdentify strengths and weaknessesAllocate support resources, such as technical assistanceAnd, Ultimately to better serve children and families!
12 Outcomes Are Functional Functional Outcomes:Refer to things that are meaningful to the child in the context of everyday livingRefer to an integrated series of behaviors or skills that allow the child to achieve the important everyday goals
13 Functional Outcomes are NOT A single behaviorThe sum of a series of discrete behaviors or splinter skillsSuch as….Knows 10 wordsSmiles at momStacks 3 blocksPincher grasp (picks up a raisin)Goes up and down stairs with one foot on each stair
14 Functional OutcomesNot domains-based, not separating child development into discrete areas (communication, Gross motor, etc.)Refer to behaviors that integrate skills across domainsCan involve multiple domainsEmphasize how the child is able to carry out meaningful behaviors in a meaningful context
15 Thinking Functionally (within age-expected bounds) Isolated skillHe/she not just…Knows how to make eye contact, smile, and give a hugKnows how to imitate a gesture when prompted by othersUses finger in pointing motionShows a skill in a specific situationFunctional skillBut he/she …Initiates affection toward caregivers and responds to others’ affectionWatches what a peer says or does and incorporates it into his/her own playPoints to indicate needs or wantsUses a skill in actions across settings and situations to accomplish
16 Thinking Functionally Discrete behaviors (e.g., those described by some items on assessments) may or may not be important to the child’s functioning on the outcomeIndividually, they are not especially informativeSummed, they may or may not be useful, depending on the functionality of the behaviors/items
17 Children Have Positive Social Relationships InvolvesRelating with adultsRelating with other childrenFor older children, following rules related to groups or interacting with othersIncludes areas like:Attachment/separation/autonomyExpressing emotions and feelingsLearning rules and expectationsSocial interactions and play
18 Children Acquire and Use Knowledge and Skills Involves:ThinkingReasoningRememberingProblem solvingUsing symbols and languageUnderstanding physical and social worldsIncludes:Early concepts—symbols, pictures, numbers,Classification, spatial relationshipsImitationObject permanenceExpressive language and communicationEarly literacy
19 Children Take Appropriate Action to Meet Their Needs Involves:Taking care of basic needsGetting from place to placeUsing tools (e.g., fork, toothbrush, crayon)In older children, contributing to their own health and safetyIncludes:Integrating motor skills to complete tasksSelf-help skills (e.g., dressing, feeding, grooming, toileting, household responsibility)Acting on the world to get what one wants
20 Thinking about Each Outcome How does the child show affection?Does the child knows that an object continues to exist when it is out of sight?How does the child interact with others?How does the child indicate hunger?Does the child understand and avoid danger?Does the child know his or her name?How does the child interact with siblings?Does the child know where things are kept in the house (e.g., what cabinet the cereal is in)?
21 Outcomes Reflect Global Functioning Each outcome is a snapshot of:The whole childStatus of the child’s current functioningFunctioning across settings and situationsRather than:Skill by skillIn one standardized waySplit domains
22 Issues Related to Accountability Even in the best system, some children will not achieve all of the outcomes at the desired levelEarly intervention cannot “fix” all childrenChildren with severe disabilities will make very slow progress toward these outcomesBut we do not know what any individual child is capable of achieving
23 The Overarching Goal“To enable young children to be active and successful participants during the early childhood years and in the future in a variety of settings- in their homes with their families, in child care, in preschool programs, and in the community.”
24 The Bottom Line Related to Achievement of the Three Outcomes Early intervention and preschool special education strive to achieve all three of the outcomes for ALL of the children receiving services.
26 Benefits of COSF Alignment between Part B, Section 619 and Part C Same child outcomes emphasizedSame reporting process usedExit from Part C can provide entry information for Part B
27 Recommended Practices for Assessment Involve multiple sourcesExamples: family members, professional team members, service providers, caregiversInvolve multiple measuresExamples: observations, criterion- or curriculum-based instruments, interviews, norm-referenced scales, informed clinical opinion, work samples
28 Assessment Instruments Assessment tools can inform us about children’s functioning in each of the three outcome areasChallenge:There is no assessment tool that assesses the three outcomes directly
29 Assessment Tool Lens Each assessment tool carries its own organizing framework, or lensMany are organized around domainsBut the content in the domains isn’talways the same, even if the names arethe same
30 Currently Available Assessment Tools Each assessment tool sees childrenthrough its own lensEach lens is slightly differentThere is no right or wrong lensKey question:How much and what information will a given tool provide about the attainment of the three child outcomes?
31 You will be assessing the child’s level of functioning for each outcome What does the child usually do?Actual performance across settings and situationsHow the child uses his/her skills to accomplish tasksNot the child’s capacity to function under unusual or ideal circumstancesNot necessarily the child’s performance in a structured testing situation (“noncompliant”)
32 …and thinking about what is expected for a child that age Each outcome is achieved differently by children of different ages.e.g., what we expect of a 12 month old with regard to knowledge and skills differs from what we expect of a 24 month oldThere are many ways that children can demonstrate (and you can learn about) functioning in an outcome areaThere are many pathways to competence for children with atypical development (e.g., using sign language, wheelchair).You will need to decide how much a given assessment tells you about functioning (in addition to giving a score in a domain area)
33 Making Use of Assessment Tool Information Information from formal or published assessment tools can be very useful, but it needs to be understood and used in the context of achievement of the three outcomesTeams may have additional information that paints a picture of the child that differs from one provided by an assessment. Teams may “override” the results from an assessment tool
34 Remember ThisFlexibility is required in applying assessment tool results to the outcomesTeams need to decide what information from an assessment tool is relevant for this child
35 What process will we use in Alaska? Team process -the team …represents information from those familiar with the child in a variety of contextsis comprised of two or more of the above who meet tocomplete the rating scaleselect the outcome indicatoruses a systematic process for making decisions
37 Which assessments will we use in Alaska Part B? You may use any of the following assessment tools to gather the Entry and Exit data:Dial 3BriganceBattelleAGSAEPSorOne approved by the Department
38 Child Outcomes Summary Form Why Is the Child Outcomes Summary Form Needed?No assessment instrument assesses the three outcomes directlyDifferent programs will be using different assessment instruments, and outcome data will need to be aggregated across programs
39 COSF Features It is not an assessment tool It uses information from assessment tools and observations to get a global sense of how the child is doing at one point in timeSeven possible ratingsRating is based on the child’s functioning:What the child does across settings and situations Compared with what is expected given the child’s age
41 Key PointsAssumption: Children can be described with regard to how close they are to age-expected functioning for each of the three outcomesBy definition, most children in the general population demonstrate the outcome in an age expected wayOver time, some children will move farther away from age-expected functioning (skills at older ages are more demanding)By providing services and supports, programs are trying to move children closer to age-expected functioningSome children will never achieve this
42 Essential Knowledge for Completing the COSF Between them, team members must:Know about the child’s functioning across settings and situationsUnderstand age-expected child developmentUnderstand the content of the three child outcomesKnow how to use the rating scaleUnderstand age expectations for child functioning within the child’s culture
43 The Form Information about the child Who participated in the process Sources of evidenceFor each outcome:Rating question“New skills” questionSpace to document the basis for the ratingTwo Forms ( handouts )Original COSFAdapted for ILP in AlaskaInstructions (Handout)Part B Option’sDistricts may use either formDistrict must still report data in the Supplemental Workbook
45 The Two COSF QuestionsTo what extent does this child show age-appropriate functioning, across a variety of settings and situations, on this outcome? (Rating: Completely to Not Yet)Has the child shown any new skills or behaviors related to [this outcome] since the last outcomes summary? (Yes-No)
46 Summary Ratings (Completely to Not Yet) Provide an overall sense of the child’s current functioning in three areasReduce rich information from assessment and observation into ratings to allow a summary of progress across childrenDo not provide information for planning for the individual child. Information at the rich, detailed level will be more helpful for intervention planning purposes
47 Using Information from Assessment Tools The ECO Center has “cross-walked” assessment tools to the outcomesCrosswalks show which sections of assessment tools are related to each outcomeHaving many items does not necessarily mean the assessment captures functioning across settings** See hand out**
48 Summary Ratings Require: Looking at functional behaviorsCollecting and synthesizing input from many sources familiar with the child in many different settings and situationsChild may display problem behaviors that are not age appropriate but are not captured by the assessment (e.g., biting, head-banging)
49 Summary Ratings Are Based on… Types of InformationCurriculum-based assessments (e.g., HELP)Norm-referenced assessments (e.g., BDI-2)Developmental screenings (e.g., Ages & Stages)Observation and reportSources of InformationParents and family membersService providersTherapistsPhysiciansChild care providersTeachersPeople familiar with the child in all of the settings and situations that he/she is inSee Yellow Handouts for definitions
50 Going beyond assessments … Using many types and sources of information is criticalTypes -portfolios, checklists, interviews, rating scales, othersSources -parents and other caregivers, teachers, therapists, other professionals who have knowledge of the child in everyday routines and contexts
51 Overview: Responsibilities of Districts/ Programs Set up a frameworkEstablish structured team process -who, what, whenReview available assessment informationMatch to required outcome areasEnhance available information if neededDevelop plan for reviewing information using ECO rating scale, using team process, and entering information into state system in accord with the established timelineComplete team rating that uses all information on each child with an IEP/IFSP, to derive a score (roll up the data)Enter data into Alaska system(Part B Supplemental Workbook)(Part C ELIP Web Database System )
52 Reporting Schedule Part C Initial COSF ratings must be completed for all children near the time of the first IFSP. For a very young infant, initial COSF may wait until 4 to 6 months of age.Annual COSF ratings are completed at the time of the annual IFSP meeting.Exit COSF ratings must be completed within 3 months of the child's exit from the program.
53 Part B ReportingThis data must be collected for all IEP preschoolers who have been in the program for 6 months.Entry data will be collected in the district within two months of program entry.Exit data will be collected in the district prior to the student's 6th birthday or when they exit special education services, whichever comes first.
54 MonitoringAn approved assessment will be completed for each child prior to each rating.The ratings and supporting evidence will be recorded on the Child Outcomes Summary Form.State staff will be monitoring for the COSF
55 Summary of immediate steps for Districts Establish process forTeamRange of types and sources of informationReview, rating, making determinationTimelines forCollecting and organizing informationCompleting team processEntering information
56 Timelines Districts August through May June –July July 15 EILP Collect DataJune –JulyEnter data into Supplemental WorkbookJuly 15Submit Supplemental Workbook to EEDEILPongoing data collection
57 Contact InformationSharon Schumacher at orJane Atuk at or: