# HOW GEOGRAPHERS LOOK AT THE WORLD. 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY  1. Location : Where is it?  2. Place: What is it like?  3. Region : How are places similar.

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HOW GEOGRAPHERS LOOK AT THE WORLD

5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY  1. Location : Where is it?  2. Place: What is it like?  3. Region : How are places similar or different?  4. Movement : How do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another?  5. Human-Environment Interaction : How do people relate to the physical world

GEOGRAPHER’S TOOLS

GLOBES AND MAPS  Globe : 3D scale model of the Earth  Map : flat representation of all of part of the planet  Cartographer : map maker

GREAT CIRCLE ROUTES  DEF: an imaginary line that follows the curve of the Earth and represents the shortest distance btwn 2 pts.

MAP PROJECTION  DEF: a mathematical formula used to represent the curved surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a map  Problem: DISTORTION ---size, shape, distance, area, and direction can be affected

TYPES OF MAP PROJECTIONS  3 major categories  1. PLANAR PROJECTION : project an image of the Earth onto a geometric plane  Distortions: greatest accuracy at the center  Use: maps of the Poles

TYPES CONTINUED  2. CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION : project Earth’s image onto a cylinder  Distortions: accurate at Equator and toward Poles  Use: navigation

TYPES CONTINUED  3. CONIC PROJECTION : Earth’s surface projected onto a map formed into a cone  Distortion: Shape relatively accurate  Use: mid-latitude regions

OTHERS  WINKEL TRIPEL : balance btwn overall size and shape of land areas shown  ROBINSON PROJECTION : sizes and shapes near eastern and western edges are accurate  GOODE’S INTERRUPTED EQUAL AREA PROJECTION : shows true size and shape of landmasses

DETERMINING LOCATION

GRID SYSTEM  LINES OF LATITUDE (PARALLELS) : circle the Earth parallel to the Equator; measure distance to the north and south of the Equator  Equator = 0°, North Pole= 90°N, South Pole= 90°S

GRID CONTINUED  LINES OF LONGITUDE (MERIDIANS) : lines that connect the North and South Poles; Run N-S but measure distance East and West of the PRIME MERIDIAN (0°)  INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE : 180° from Prime Meridian

ABSOLUTE LOCATION  Def: exact location  Each degree is divided into 60 minutes (‘); each minute is divided into 60 seconds (“)

RELATIVE LOCATION  Def: location in relation to other places  Ex: Dallas is southeast of Denton

USING MAPS

PARTS OF A MAP  Purpose (title)  Time period  Legend/Key: identifies symbols/icons on map  Compass Rose: indicates directions -- CARDINAL DIRECTIONS : North, South, East, West -- INTERMEDIATE DIRECTIONS : NE, SE, etc…

PARTS CONTINUED  Lines: represent human activity --can also represent physical features  Colors distinguish btwn human and physical features  Colors also can show ELEVATION : height above sea level

PARTS CONTINUED  SCALE : represents consistent, proportional relationship btwn measurements on map and actual Earth measurements  Small-scale: shows a large area with very little detail  Large-scale: shows a small area with a great amount of detail

TYPES OF MAPS

PHYSICAL MAP  Shows location and topography of land features  Highlights general relief (variation in elevation)

POLITICAL MAP  Shows boundaries and locations of political units

THEMATIC MAP  Emphasizes a particular theme or subject

MENTAL/INTERNAL MAP  Your perception of features of the Earth’s surface

GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)  Determines exact location (lat./long.)  Uses a network of 24 satellites  Triangulates position

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)  Programs that process and organize details about places on Earth and integrate those details with satellite images and other info.  Primary function: link locations with attributes found there

SATELLITE  Natural or man-made  Orbit a planet or other large body  Good for REMOTE SENSING : getting info on a subject w/o physically touching the object

PART 2: THE GEOGRAPHER’S CRAFT How does geography help us interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future?

SPATIAL PERSPECTIVE  Def: a way of looking at the human and physical patterns on Earth and their relationships to one another  Why things are where they are  Connections btwn ecosystems and human societies

ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY

THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS  SITE : the specific location of a place, including its physical setting  SITUATION : the geographic position of a place in relation to other places or features of a larger region

PLACES AND REGIONS  REGION : area that can be defined by physical traits and human characteristics  3 types:  1: FORMAL REGION : defined by a common characteristic  2: FUNCTIONAL REGION : central place and the surrounding territory linked to it  3: PERCEPTUAL REGION : defined by popular feelings and images rather than objective data

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN SYSTEMS  Physical: climate, land, water, plants, animal life  ECOSYSTEM : a community of plants and animals that depend upon one another and their surroundings for survival  Human/Cultural: political, economic, social, and cultural

ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY  Called Human-Environment Interaction  The ways in which people use their surroundings  And the consequences

GEOGRAPHY AND OTHER SUBJECTS  Geo’s obtain data from numerous fields  Death rates, disease, natural disasters, census data  All show FLUCTUATIONS (shift from a previous condition) in population

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