2 Main Idea Vocabulary Carbohydrates Starch Photosynthesis Carbohydrates form the largest part of a healthy diet, are the body’s main source of energy, and come in three different types. them.VocabularyCarbohydratesPhotosynthesisChlorophyllSugarSimple CarbohydratesMonosaccharideDisaccharideStarchPolysaccharideComplex CarbohydratesDietary FiberAdded SugarSugar Substitute
3 What Are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are the largest part of a healthy diet.They are the body’s main source of energy.Come mostly from plan foods such as fruits, vegetables, grain products, dry beans, nuts and seeds.
4 How Plants Create Carbohydrates Plants create carbohydrates through photosynthesis.The process by which plants use the sun’s energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose.Chlorophyll: the green pigment in plants, is necessary for photosynthesis.
6 Sugars: Simple Carbohydrates A sugar is the form of carbohydrate that supplies energy to body.In nutrition, sugars are known as simple carbohydrate.Simple carbohydrate is a carbohydrate with a simple chemical structure.Monosaccharaides: is a sugar with a single chemical unit.Glucose: fruits, vegetables, honey, and corn syrupAlso known as dextrose.Fructose: vegetables, honey, highly sweet sugar.Galactose: found in few foods. Helps create milk sugar (lactose).Disaccharides: is a sugar made with two monosaccharaides.Sucrose: (glucose + fructose) found in fruit, sugar cane, and sugar beets.Lactose: (glucose + galactose) is found only in milk and milk productsMaltose ( glucose + glucose) forms when starch is digested.
7 Starches: Complex Carbohydrates A starch is a carbohydrate with a more complex chemical structure than a sugar.Starch can be used a thickening agent when dissolved in water and heated.A polysaccharide is a sugar made of several monosaccharide's. (**Poly means many)Complex carbohydrate is a carbohydrate that requires work for the body to digest.Dietary FiberThe third type is fiber.Dietary fiber is plant material that cannot be digested.Fiber is not a nutrient, but is essential for good health.Digesting CarbohydratesDuring digestion, your body converts carbohydrates into glucose.
8 Carbohydrates in Food Sugars in Food Starches in Food Many foods that are sweet in taste are sweet due to natural sugars found in them.Natural sugars include: sucrose, fructose, galactose, lactose.Added Sugar: sugar that is extracted from plants and used to sweeten foods.Sucrose, corn syrup, honey, maple syrupStarches in FoodIn plants, glucose is stored as starch.Grains or grass seeds, are rich in starch
9 Naturally Sweet CornWhy is early season corn sweeter than late-season corn??As the young plant grows, it makes glucose. As the plant matures, it converts glucose to starch.**Glucose is much sweeter than starch.
10 The Need for Carbohydrates Remember that Carbohydrates produce glucose….Glucose powers all of your activitiesBreathing, walking, running, and even thinkingYour body stores glucose as glycogen in the muscles and liver.When your body needs energy, it converts glycogen back into glucose.
11 Carbohydrates in the diet Teens and adults should get percent of their daily calories from carbsComplex Carbohydrates have more vitamins, minerals, and fiberCarbohydrates cause bacteria in your mouth- produces acid which sticks to your teeth.No-Carb, Low-Carb DietsWhat happens if you don’t eat enouch carbs?!Body uses fat and protein for energy; which takes protein away from your tissues.Robs your bones of mineralsRaises your blood cholesterolIncrease risk of kidney stonesMay cause problems with your nervous system
12 Added sugar in the dietAdded sugar in moderation is okayEating to much can lead toObesityHealth problemsDiabetesHeart diseaseHow much added sugar should you eat?USDA suggests a limit of 10 teaspoons per day.To estimate the amount of sugar use the nutrition label.4 grams of sugar = 1 teaspoon (15 calories)Sugar Substitutes: is a substance that tastes sweet but has few or no caloriesArtificial sweetenersSugar alcohols
13 Starch and Fiber in the Diet Starchy foods not only provideglucoseProteinVitaminsMineralsPhytochemicalsFiberFiber:Plant SourcesFruitsVegetablesGrainsNutsSeedsDry beans, peas, lentilsFiber absorbs waterPromotes healthy bowel movements