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Levels of Organization, Homeostasis, Body Cavities

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Presentation on theme: "Levels of Organization, Homeostasis, Body Cavities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Levels of Organization, Homeostasis, Body Cavities
Introduction to A&P Levels of Organization, Homeostasis, Body Cavities

2 Terminology Anatomy – the study of internal and external structures of the body, and the physical relationships among body parts. Ex. Studying the parts of the kidney. Physiology – the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions. Ex. Studying the mechanisms by which the kidneys produce urine.

3 Levels of Organization

4 Levels of Organization
chemical level – lowest – chemicals essential for maintaining life- atoms to molecules to macromolecules to organelles cellular- basic structural and functional unit; ex. Muscle and nerve cells tissue- similar cells with same function; ex. Connective tissue, epithelial tissue

5 Levels of Organization
organ- structures of definite form and function composed of 2 or more tissues; ex. Heart, liver system- association of organs with common function ex. Digestive, nervous organism – all parts of the body functioning with one another

6 Metabolism Definition: sum total of all chemical processes occurring in the body catabolism – breakdown of organic matter, usually with the release of energy anabolism – buildup of organic matter, usually requiring the input of energy Example: A catabolic process would be the breakdown of a Carbohydrate for a release of energy to the body. An anabolic reaction would occur when that energy is captured and then used (or required) for something else.

7 Homeostasis Definition: state of balance in which the body’s internal environment remains in the normal range. Our body is said to be in homeostasis when the needs of its cells are met and its activities are occurring smoothly. Occurs with a balance of positive and negative feedback.

8 +/- Feedback negative feedback – when the information decreases the system’s output to bring the system back to its set point Example: The level of glucose rises after a meal, glucose stimulates the release of insulin, and insulin encourages the passage of glucose in the cells and therefore reduces the glucose level.

9 +/- Feedback positive feedback – the information returned to the system increase the deviation from the set point Example: Stimulating a nerve cell causes sodium ions to flow across the membrane into the cell; the sodium flow increases the membrane’s passageways to encourage more sodium ions to flow inward. The result is a nerve impulse.

10 Body Planes

11 Planes of the Body sagittal – lengthwise plane running from front to back, it divides the body into right and left sides transverse – refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions Coronal (frontal) – lengthwise plane running from side to side, it divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions

12 Body Cavities

13 Body Cavities The human is divided into an axial portion (head, neck and trunk) and an appendicular portion (upper and lower limbs) The axial portion has 2 major cavities: a dorsal and a ventral cavity

14 Body Cavities dorsal – subdivided into the cranial (brain) and spinal (vertebrae and spinal cord) cavities ventral (divided by the diaphragm) – subdivided into the thoracic (heart, lungs, esophagus) and abdominopelvic ( stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, etc) cavities

15 Body Cavities right hypochondriac epigastric left hypochondriac
thoracic – the mediastinum separates the thoracic cavity into 2 compartments, the left and right lungs. The mediastinum includes the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland abdominopelvic cavity includes the upper abdomen and the lower pelvic areas. The abdominal region is subdivided into nine regions right hypochondriac epigastric left hypochondriac right lumbar umbilical left lumbar right iliac hypogastric left iliac region

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