Presentation on theme: "Cholera. Classification of Cholera Cholera is an acute infection of the intestine caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Scientific Name: Vibrio cholerae."— Presentation transcript:
Classification of Cholera Cholera is an acute infection of the intestine caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Scientific Name: Vibrio cholerae Classification: Kingdom: Monera Phylum: Proteobacteria Class: Gamma Proteobacteria Order: Vibrionales Family: Vibrionaceae Genus: Vibrio Species: Vibrio cholerae
Symptoms of Cholera Symptoms of Cholera usually appear in two stages: 1.Diarrhea - The diarrheal stage is characterized by watery, but painless diarrhea and is accompanied by cramps and vomiting. 2.Dehydration - The dehydration stage is characterized by cold skin, sunken eyes, thirst, weak pulse, faint & high pitched voice, shock, reduced urine, muscle cramps and weakness. The dehydration may become so severe within only a few hours that it can result in death unless the symptoms are recognized and given immediate medical attention.
Where Cholera Is Found & How It’s Transmitted Cholera is naturally found in brackish (more salt than freshwater, but less than sea water) rivers and coastal waters. It is transmitted to humans through the ingestion of contaminated food or water and found mostly in underdeveloped countries.
H istorical Significance & Interesting Facts The first pandemic of Cholera spanned 1816-1826. It begun in Bengal and spread across India by 1820. It extended to China and the Caspian Sea before receding. An outbreak in 1849 claimed the life of former U.S. President James K. Polk. Cholera was prevalent in the U.S. during the 1800’s. Due to advanced sewage and water treatment systems, Cholera has been virtually eliminated in the United States & Western Europe. Seven pandemics (outbreaks occurring over a wide geographic region & affecting an exceptionally high portion of the population) of Cholera have been recorded. Six of them killed millions of people across Europe, Africa, North & South America. The seventh is an ongoing pandemic in Asia, Africa and Latin America that has spanned the last four decades. The disease is now considered endemic (characteristic to a particular people or country) to many countries. The pathogen that causes Cholera cannot currently be eliminated from the environment. There is evidence to suggest that Cholera is now resistant to drugs that used to treat it such as trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin. Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those who are malnourished or have been infected with HIV are at a greater risk of death after being infected by Cholera. Famous victims of Cholera include Mary Abigail Fillmore (daughter of U.S. President Millard Fillmore), Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia, William Shelley and William Godwin (son & father of author Mary Shelley) and Alexandre Dumas (author of The Three Musketeers & The Count of Monte Cristo; this was the second time he had contracted Cholera, the first was during the 1832 Paris epidemic, prior to writing these two works).