Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Section 1. Only RHODE ISLAND did not take part in the convention because it did not believe in a stronger central government. It began in Philadelphias."— Presentation transcript:
Only RHODE ISLAND did not take part in the convention because it did not believe in a stronger central government. It began in Philadelphias Independence Hall on May 25, 1787.
There were 55 delegates, and Ben Franklin (81) was the oldest delegate. He was famous as a diplomat, writer, inventor, and scientist. Patrick Henry was elected as a delegate, but he was against the convention and did not attend.
It was voted unanimously (collectively) that George Washington should be the President of the Convention. The public was not allowed to attend meeting, the doors were guarded, and the windows were kept tightly shut. Why would they do this?
The delegates agreed that changing the Articles would not be enough, so they wrote a new constitution. They wanted to strengthen the national government by the creation of a new plan of government. Constitutional Convention: the meeting of state delegates in 1787 leading to adoption of the new Constitution.
I would bury my bones in this city rather than [leave]…the convention without anything being done. -Elbridge Gerry
Virginia Plan: called for a government with three branches Legislative Branch: lawmakers. There would be two houses based on population. Executive Branch: carry out the laws Judicial Branch: courts who interpret and apply the laws What would be a problem with two houses based on population?
New Jersey Plan: Also called for three branches of government The legislative branch would only have one house, and the states would only have one vote. Written by James Patterson
The Great Compromise A committee headed by Roger Sherman came up with an answer for the Virginia-New Jersey dilemma. The committee proposed Congress having two houses- the Senate and House of Representatives. Senate would have equal representation House of Representatives based on population Great Compromise: agreement providing a dual system of congressional representation. It is also known as the Connecticut Compromise.
At the time, more than 550,000 African Americans were enslaves, mostly in the South. Southerners wanted to count the slaves as part of their population, but Northerners opposed the idea. Three-Fifths Compromise: agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress.
Congress could regulate trade between the states, as well as other countries. Congress could not tax exports or interfere with the slave trade before 1808. Electoral College: a group of people who would be named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president.
9 of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution. Federalists: Supporters of the Constitution Federalism: a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states.
Anti-Federalists: Opposed the Constitution Felt that it gave too much power to the national government and took too much away from the states. Objected not having a bill of rights. They thought the Constitution failed to provide protection for certain individual liberties, such as the freedoms of speech and religion. June 21, 1788: Constitution took effect.
Main purpose of the Constitution: provide a framework for the U.S. government. Three parts of the Constitution Preamble: an introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government Seven articles: describes the structure of the government Amendments: 27 additions or changes to the Constitution.
It starts by saying, We the People… because the government depends on the people. The middle part states the six purposes for government To form a more perfect Union To establish Justice To insure domestic Tranquility To provide for the common defense To promote the general Welfare To secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity
Article I: The Legislative Branch The Framers of the Constitution intended for the legislative branch to be the leader in the government. Congress can collect taxes, regulate foreign and interstate trade, coin money, and declare war. Article II: The Executive Branch Powers include commanding the armed forces, dealing with leaders of other countries, and appointing certain government officials. Article III: The Judicial Branch Power deals with cases involving the Constitution, federal laws and treaties, and disputes between states.
Articles IV-VII Article IV: States respect each other Article V: Specified how amendments are made Article VI: Constitution is supreme Law of the Land. Also, if state laws or court decisions conflict with federal law, the federal law prevails. Article VII: Constitution would take effect when nine states ratified it.
There have been 27 amendments (changes to the Constitution). Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments. Added in 1791. Framers made the process of amending the Constitution difficult on purpose. WHY?
Necessary and Proper Clause: Allows Congress to exercise powers that are not specifically listed in the Constitution (powers known as implied powers). Supreme Court has the final authority on the interpretation, and they have interpreted the Constitution in different ways.
Presidential and Congressional actions have caused the interpretations to change. The Constitution allows the House of Representatives to impeach, or accuse, federal official. The Senate determines guilt or innocence. The interpretation of the Constitution has also changes though customs that have developed. Ex. Political parties.
The Framers embraced five principled for the Constitution Popular Sovereignty Rule of Law Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Federalism
Popular Sovereignty: the notion that power lies with the people. How can we ensure this? People have the right to vote Choose who represents us in Congress Electoral College
The law should be strong, but not too strong Rule of Law: The law applies to everyone, even those who govern.
Influenced by Baron de Montesquieu- a French philosopher. Separation of powers: the split of authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
Checks and Balances: system to keep any one branch from becoming too powerful. Examples: (dont have to write) President can veto a law Congress can block presidential appointments and treaties The Supreme Court can overturn laws and executive policies
Power is shared between the national and state governments. Expressed Powers: powers only given to the national government. coin money and make treaties with other nations. Reserved Powers: powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government and are kept by the states. regulating trade within state borders, establishing schools, and rule for marriage and divorce. Concurrent Powers: Powers that the state and national governments exercise. collect taxes, borrow money, and set up courts and prisons.