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Chapter 4, Section 2 Medieval Europe.

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1 Chapter 4, Section 2 Medieval Europe

2 Christianity With the decline of the Roman Empire, a new age began called the Middle Ages. Medieval comes from a Latin word, meaning Middle Ages. The middle ages were a 1,000 year period that took place between Classical and modern times.

3 Christianity During the Middle Ages, Christianity became a political power in Europe. The leaders of the churches were known as bishops (we call them popes today). The influence of the Church was so strong that the popes became important political figures.

4 Christianity By A.D. 500 the first Christian Bible was completed.
The popes sent missionaries out to spread their religious views. The were known as monks and nuns. They helped the needy and were teachers. The Church greatly advanced education in Europe. By the 1100’s the Church also founded the first universities in Italy and England.

5 The Holy Roman Empire The Germans combined their common laws with those of others and founded kingdoms all over Europe. The early kings were elected by nobles and knights. Through time, kings became more powerful and began passing the crown down to the next generation, usually the king’s first born son.

6 The Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne
One of the most important German kingdoms was that of the Franks. They controlled what would become Germany and France. 771 – Charlemagne was elected king of the Franks Through his leadership, he added parts of Spain & Italy, and Rome.

7 The Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne Cont’d
On Christmas Day of 800, Charlemagne was crowned the head of the Roman Empire in the West, which became known as the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne died in 814, and the empire was broken up between his sons and grandsons. These kingdoms were the foundations for modern, Germany, Italy, France and Spain. During the same time, several Germanic groups helped found the first English kingdom which later became known as England.

8 Medieval Society During the Middle Ages, feudalism emerged.
This is a political and social system. Under this system, kings gave land to their loyal lords (nobles). In exchange for the land, the lords provided the kings with military service (knights) These nobles who swore loyalty to the king were called vassals.

9 Medieval Society The feudal estate was called the manor.
At the heart of the estate was a castle. There were two types of common people who made up a large percentage of the estate’s population: Tenants: paid rent for their land and used it how they pleased Serfs: poorer than tenants and were not as free; worked as ordered by the lords; often had very hard jobs; in times of war, became foot soldiers

10 Medieval Society These were violent times, and people rarely strayed too far from the manor. The manors were often visited by people with special skills or talents. Fixing metal objects would be a skill, and jokers or troubadours would visit to provide entertainment.

11 The Growth of Cities Towns/cities grew rapidly during this time.
Armies needed supplies so their importance grew. Guilds – workers organizations, who controlled industries such as cloth, boat building and etc. Apprentices spent many years learning a trade so they could join a guild The apprentices became journeymen and then master craftsmen

12 The Growth of Cities Larger cities/towns grew to become political and religious centers as well. The kings recognized the town’s importance. Kings would grant the town’s residents privileges and freedoms in written charters. By doing this, the king won the resident’s support. The king raised money by taxing the residents. He would use this money to pay his military instead of giving them land. Serfs could also use this money to buy their freedom. The system of feudalism began to decline.

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