Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 SECTION 1. In the beginning… The Civil War began in 1861 at FT. SUMTER. The Civil War was between the NORTHERN states and the SOUTHERN states."— Presentation transcript:
In the beginning… The Civil War began in 1861 at FT. SUMTER. The Civil War was between the NORTHERN states and the SOUTHERN states of the United States.
First Battle of Bull Run Lincoln ordered Gen. McDowell into action even though they were not ready. CONF - strengthened army by moving troops in trains (first time done) Union troops dropped guns and ran back north. 35,000 troops involved Union lost 2,900 Confederate lost 2,000 Confederate’s won
STRENGTHS OF THE NORTH Twice as much railroad Twice as many factories Balanced economy between farming and industry Functioning government Army and navy 2/3 of nations population
STRENGTH OF SOUTH Military colleges in south to train officers Did not need to initiate military action to win the war, only defend and not lose. Fighting to preserve way of life and right to self-government
UNION MILITARY STRATEGIES Naval blockade of Southern States- couldn’t ship cotton out. Gain control of Mississippi River- ANACONDA PLAN-like the snake, squeeze the life out of them. Seize the capital-Richmond.
SOUTHERN STRATEGIES Prepare and wait War of attrition- inflicts continuous losses on the enemy in order to wear down its strength. Cut off cotton supply to Europe-force them to help out. Backfired…Europe turned to India and Egypt. Had no money when no cotton was being sold.
TACTICS AND TECHNOLOGY General relied on sending masses of charging men into enemy b/c guns and bullets weren’t accurate. Guns now much more accurate, could fire from over 500 feet. Shells developed-exploded in air. Generals didn’t change tactics, many men killed.
WAR IN THE WEST Grant took over the union army in the west. Union captured Ft. Donelson & Ft. Henry. BATTLE OF SHILOH- -South had 40,000. -South attacked Grant and pushed them back. -Grant got reinforcements and defeated South -Union lost 13,000/Conf. lost 11,000. Union wanted to control Miss. River and cut Conf. in half.
MONITOR & MERRIMACK South created an ironclad ship by attaching iron plates onto a wooden ship named the Merrimack. Union was afraid the south would tear the blockade in two. Created their own iron ship named the Monitor. Navy warfare changed forever.
The South Attacks General Lee took over the Confederate army. Lee wanted to attack. Split his army of 55,000. sent some to Stonewall Jackson. Jackson pretended to prepare to attack Washington. Lincoln kept troops there to protect Washington. Jackson then joined Lee and attacked the Union army at SEVEN DAYS’ BATTLES. Conf. lost 20,000/Union 16,000. McClellan (Union) retreated.
SECOND BATTLE OF BULL RUN Lee again divided his army. Sent Jackson around Union army. Confederates won again when Lee joined in to the fight.
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM Richmond was no longer threatened by the Union. Lee wanted to invade the north. Union found South’s plan’s but did not react soon enough. South able to prepare. Lee had 40,000 troops-McClellan 75,000-25,000 in reserve. First 3 hours 12,000 from both sides died. Union lost 12,000/South lost 14,000. Bloodiest day of Civil War. South retreated.