Presentation on theme: "Language. Structure of Language Phonemes - Consonants, vowels, th, sh, ch,…. Morphemes - Dog, van, ing, ed,… How many phonemes (sounds) are in these words?"— Presentation transcript:
Structure of Language Phonemes - Consonants, vowels, th, sh, ch,…. Morphemes - Dog, van, ing, ed,… How many phonemes (sounds) are in these words? Thing Psychology Hopes Sun Quickly Wish Weigh Laughed Nation How many morphemes in the following words? People Swimming Orange Literally Reddish Radish Waited George’s Misspell Antidisestablishmentarianism
Structure of Language Words = 1 or more morphemes Syntax = set of rules to combine words Semantics govern meaning “The girl the boy saw.” – violates syntax “The rapid freedom ran around the curious emptiness.” – obeys syntax, but makes no sense due to meaning of the words
Language Development Receptive Language - ability to comprehend speech Productive Language – ability to produce words Surface structure v. deep structure – “Joey was swinging too high, and the rope broke and he fell on his head.” – “Joey hurt his head when he fell off the swing.”
Language Development Babbling stage (4 months) One-word stage (1 year) Two-word stage (2 years) Telegraphic speech
Challenges in Language Development Overextension – Same word applies to many things – “Juice” refers to milk, water, juice, etc. Underextension – Only use word to apply to one specific example, rather than using it for others – Calls own dog “dog”, but not other dogs “dog” Overregularization/overgeneralization – Apply grammar rules w/out making appropriate exceptions – EX: She “goed” to the store
Thinking in Images Implicit memory – mental picture of how you do a task Watching an activity will activate brain’s internal stimulation of it – Pianist mentally rehearses song – Dancer mentally imagines choreography
Explaining Language Development Skinner & Behaviorism – Association for seeing & hearing words – Imitation – Reinforcement or punishment Nature or nurture?
Thinking & Language Linguistic determinism (Whorff) – Language determines way we think – Culturally influenced Nature or nurture?
Thinking & Language Bilingual advantage (Lambert) – Bilingual children who learn to inhibit one language while learning another, are also better able to inhibit their attention to irrelevant info
Explaining Language Development Chomsky (Nativist theory) & Inborn Universal Grammar – Language acquisition device: innate mechanism or process that allows language (unique to humans) – Universal grammar: common structure for language among all cultures Nature or nurture?
Explaining Language Development Critical Periods – specific time period early in life for language development