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Dr. V. B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences, Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand). INDIA Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. V. B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences, Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand). INDIA Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. V. B. Mathur Dean, Faculty of Wildlife Sciences, Wildlife Institute of India Chandrabani, Dehradun (Uttarakhand). INDIA Email: vbm@wii.gov.in Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of Protected Areas in India

2 Background Disappearance of tiger in Sariska  PMO’s directive to C&AG  PMO’s directive to MoEF

3 Audit, Evaluation, Assessment or What? The terminological confusion??? Need to reduce ambivalence and ambiguity and evolve a common understanding and vocabulary

4 An independent, objective assurance activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to assess and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes. Note: a distinction is made between regularity (financial) auditing, which focuses on compliance with applicable statutes and regulations; and performance auditing, which is concerned with relevance, economy, efficiency and effectiveness. Internal auditing provides an assessment of internal controls undertaken by a unit reporting to management while external auditing is conducted by an independent organization. Audit

5 Obligation to demonstrate that work has been conducted in compliance with agreed rules and standards or to report fairly and accurately on performance results vis-a-vis mandated roles and/or plans. This may require a careful, even legally defensible, demonstration that the work, is consistent with the contract terms. Note: Accountability in development may refer to the obligations of partners to act according to clearly defined responsibilities, roles and performance expectations, often with respect to the prudent use of resources. For evaluators, it connotes the responsibility to provide accurate, fair and.credible monitoring reports and performance assessment. For public sector managers and policy- makers, accountability is to taxpayers/citizens Accountability

6 An evaluation carried out by entities and persons free of the control of those responsible for the design and implementation of the development intervention. Note: The credibility of an evaluation depends in part on how independently it has been carried out. Independence implies freedom from political influence and organizational pressure. It is characterized by full access to information and by full autonomy in carrying out investigations and reporting findings. Independent evaluation

7 ‘..the assessment of how well a protected area is being managed – primarily the extent to which it is protecting values and achieving goals and objectives’ WCPA Guidelines (2006) It includes consideration of:  design issues  the adequacy and appropriateness of management systems and processes  and the delivery of protected area objectives including conservation of values What is management effectiveness evaluation?

8 ‘..the assessment of how well a protected area is being managed – primarily the extent to which it is protecting values and achieving goals and objectives’ WCPA Guidelines (2006) It includes consideration of:  design issues  the adequacy and appropriateness of management systems and processes  and the delivery of protected area objectives including conservation of values What is management effectiveness evaluation?

9  Protected areas are critical for in-situ conservation  Most protected areas are subject to multiple serious threats and many are degraded  1992 review of protected areas found that three of the five most common threats were management deficiencies rather than direct impacts on resources Why is management effectiveness an issue? more…

10 Management is not easy  Conflicting management objectives  Systems of governance  Adequate and appropriate resources  Implementation of some of the management prescriptions difficult.

11  by recording, observing and talking about the changes we see in the environment and looking for their causes  by encouraging a culture where we look and reflect on our management  by helping us to learn from our ‘mistakes’ and our ‘successes’ 1.Evaluation can help us manage better Why should we bother? more…

12  by signalling global and local changes and threats  by showcasing management techniques for broader landscape management 1.Evaluation can help us manage better Why should we bother?

13  It identifies priorities for actions  Helps to show real resource needs 3.Evaluation promotes accountability and transparency  The society can see how their parks and forests are managed  Baselines can be established for partnerships, agreements, trusteeships and contracts 2.Evaluation assists in effective resource allocation Why should we bother?

14  Involving traditional owners, community members and scientists gives us more credibility and helps build good relationships  Increasing public action to support parks: Showing the community the need for better resourcing of the parks system and alerting them to threats 4. Evaluation can help involve the community, build constituency and promote protected area values 687

15  PA Management agencies at Central and State levels  Managers of individual protected areas  Elected representatives  Local communities in and around PAs and general public  Funding agencies: GEF, The World Bank  Civil Society representatives  Conventions: UNESCO World Heritage, CBD Who wants to know about protected area effectiveness?

16 Source: Hockings et al The Global MEE Framework

17 The MEE Framework for India Element Name Headline Indicators Context 4 Planning 7 Inputs 5 Process 6 Outputs 4 Outcomes 4 Total 30

18 The MEE Framework for India Element Name Headline Indicators Context 1.1Identification of values 1.2Assessment of threats 1.3Biotic interference in core area 1.4Compliance of statutory requirements Planning 2.1Tiger conservation plan 2.2Safeguarding of biodiversity values 2.3Stakeholder participation 2.4Habitat management 2.5Effective protection strategy 2.6Mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts 2.7Landscape conservation approach more…

19 The MEE Framework for India Element Name Headline Indicators Inputs 3.1Adequacy of manpower deployment 3.2Adequacy of physical infrastructure 3.3Adequacy of central government funding 3.4Adequacy of state government funding 3.5NGO resource contribution Process 4.1Adequacy of trained manpower resources 4.2Frontline staff performance evaluation 4.3Effectiveness of public participation 4.4Process of complaint handling 4.5Livelihood support to local communities 4.6Village relocation planning more…

20 The MEE Framework for India Element Name Headline Indicators Outputs 5.1Dissemination of information to public 5.2Management of visitor facilities 5.3Evaluation of research/monitoring trends 5.4Adequacy of infrastructure maintenance & funds Outcomes 6.1Population trends of tiger & other species 6.2Threat abatement 6.3Visitor satisfaction 6.4Local community support

21 Approaches to assessing management effectiveness  Protected areas management effectiveness evaluation has been conducted in many countries using range of methodologies/ approaches emanating from the global MEE framework. These approaches vary considerably in their scale, depth, duration and data collection methods (Ervin, J. 2006). S.No.Type of ApproachApplication in India 1Comprehensive system-wide, Peer-based assessment Project Tiger Reserves (2005-06 & 2010-11) 2In-depth, Evidence based assessment 02 World Heritage Sites (2003-07) 3Rapid Expert-based scorecard58 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries (2008-09) 40 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries (2012-13)

22 MEE of Project Tiger Reserves in India (2005-06)

23 MEE of Project Tiger Reserves in India Results at a Glance… S. No. Name of the Tiger Reserve ScoreCategory 1Kanha166Very Good 2Dudhwa154Very Good 3Corbett152Very Good 4Sunderbans152Very Good 5Pench (M.P.)144Very Good 6Palamau141Very Good 7Simlipal140Very Good 8Melghat137Very Good 9Panna135Very Good 10Tadoba-Andhari134Good 11Bori-Satpura128Good 12Bandhavgarh127Good 13Periyar127Good 14Bandipur & Rajiv Gandhi N.P. (Nagarhole) 126Good S. No. Name of the Tiger ReserveScoreCategory 15Pench (Maharashtra)125Good 16Buxa124Good 17Dampa121Good 18Bhadra117Good 19Nameri112Good 20Pakke106Satisfactory 21Valmiki106Satisfactory 22Kalakad-Mundanthurai104Satisfactory 23Manas102Satisfactory 24Namdapha95Satisfactory 25Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam91Satisfactory 26Ranthambhore89Satisfactory 27Indravati70Poor 28Sariska61Poor more…

24 MEE of Project Tiger Reserves in India (2010-11)

25 MEE (%age) & Rating of individual Tiger Reserves (2010-11) S. No. Name of Tiger Reserve Rating 1 Annamalai Very Good 2 Bandhavgarh 3 Bandipur 4 Bhadra 5 Bori-Satpura 6 Dandeli-Anshi 7 Kalakad-Mundathurai 8 Kanha 9 Kaziranga 10 Mudumalai 11 Parambikulam 12 Pench, Madhya Pradesh 13 Periyar 14 Sundarbans S. No. Name of Tiger Reserve Rating 1Buxa Good 2Corbett 3Dampa 4Dudhwa 5Manas 6Melghat 7Nagarhole 8Pakke 9Pench, Maharashtra 10Ranthambhore 11Tadoba-Andhari S. No. Name of Tiger Reserve Rating 1Namdapha Satisfactory 2Nameri 3Sanjay 4Sayadari 5Valmiki S. No. Name of Tiger Reserve Rating 1Achanakmar Poor 2Satkosia RatingNumber of Tiger ReservesPercentage Very Good1444 Good1134 Satisfactory516 Poor26 Total32

26 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results more… S.NoSite NameMEE Score (%)Category 1Gorumara National Park, West Bengal83 Very Good 2Mollem National Park, Goa83 3Singalila National Park, West Bengal81 4Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh77 5Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Rajasthan77 6Eravikulam National Park, Kerala77 7Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam76 8Keibul-Lamjao National Park, Manipur75 9Orang (Rajiv Gandhi) National Park, Assam75

27 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results more… S.NoSite NameMEE Score (%)Category 10Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim73 Good 11Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunanchal Pradesh73 12Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, West Bengal72 13Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, Meghalaya71 14Mudumalai National Park, Tamil Nadu71 15Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh71 16Mukurthi National Park, Tamil Nadu71 17Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa70 18Barsey Rhododendron Wildlife Sanctuary, Sikkim70 19Murlen National Park, Mizoram70

28 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results more… S.NoSite NameMEE Score (%)Category 20Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Jharkhand68 Good 21Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura68 22Mahatma Gandhi National Park, Andaman Nicobar67 23Gahirmatha Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa66 24Marine (Gulf of Kutch) National Park, Gujarat65 25Interview Islands Wildlife Sanctuary, A & N63 26Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, West Bengal63 27Mookambika National Park, Karnataka63 28Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra62 29Rajaji National Park, Uttarakhand61 30Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat60 31Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan60

29 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results more… S.NoSite NameMEE Score (%)Category 32Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura59 Satisfactory 33Kalesar National Park, Haryana59 34Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh59 35Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka59 36Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra58 37Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala58 38Intanki National Park, Nagaland58 39Gulf of Mannar National Park, Tamil Nadu57 40Sultanpur National Park, Haryana57 41Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi57

30 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results more… S.NoSite NameMEE Score (%)Category 42Barda Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat56 Satisfactory 43Sunebeda Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa56 44National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh55 45Navegaon National Park, Maharashtra53 46Desert National Park, Rajasthan53 47Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary, Chattisgarh52 48Govind Pashu Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttarakhand52 49Madhav National Park, Madhya Pradesh51 50Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh51

31 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results S.NoSite NameMEE Score (%)Category 51Sohelwa Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh49 Poor 52Semarsot Wildlife Sanctuary, Chattisgarh49 53Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary, J&K47 54Kishtwar National Park, Jammu & Kashmir47 55 Gundla Brahmeswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh45 56Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh44 57Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, Bihar43 58Mahauaduar Wildlife Sanctuary, Jharkhand40

32 MEE of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries Site Level: Results Total No. of Protected Areas Evaluated Overall MEE Score (%) Evaluation Category 5862 Very GoodGood Satisfa ctory Poor 9 (16%) 22 (38%) 19 (33%) 8 (14%) more…

33 MEE of Protected Area Network in India  Continue to bring in methodological and process refinements  Enhance the participation of a range of relevant stakeholders  Disseminate the findings and bring in appropriate changes in policy, governance and management to enhance effectiveness of management of PAs. The Way Forward….

34 Thank You


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