Presentation on theme: "Twice Exceptional: Gifted and Learning Disabled"— Presentation transcript:
1 Twice Exceptional: Gifted and Learning Disabled Presented by: Rebecca L. Mann
2 Definition of Giftedness: United States Office of Education definition of Gifted and Talented Students"those who have outstanding abilities, are capable of high performance and who require differentiated educational programs (beyond those normally provided by regular school programs) in order to realize their contribution to self and society."
3 Characteristics of Giftedness Reasons well Learns rapidly Extensive vocabularyExcellent memory Long attention span SensitiveCompassionate Perfectionistic IntenseMorally sensitive Strongly curious Perseveres in interestsHigh degree of energy Prefers older people Wide range of interestsGreat sense of humor Avid reader Concerned with justiceMature judgment Keen observer Vivid imaginationHighly creative Tends to question authority
4 Definition of Learning Disabilities Public Law"a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the following areas:(I) oral expression(ii) listening comprehension(iii) written expression(iv) basic reading skill(v) reading comprehension(vi) mathematics reasoning"disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations."
5 At least average intelligence… A Learning Disability is a neurological/physiological difference in the way the brain is organized.A neurological disorder that affects the brain’s ability to receive, process, store and respond to information…At least average intelligence…Difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills…(National Center for Learning Disabilities)
8 Causes Differences in the structure and functioning of the brain (National Dissemination Center)Neurological dysfunction may be presumed or suspected, but learning disabilities have a variety of possible causes.(Curry School of Education)A leading theory among scientists is that learning disabilities stem from subtle disturbances in the brain structures and functions.A learning disability is a neurological disorder that affects the brains ability to receive, process, stores and respond to information.(National Center for Learning Disabilities)Since the term learning disability does not describe a single disorder, there is no since cause that has been pinpointed.
9 Characteristics of Twice Exceptional Learners Signs of Giftedness Signs of Learning Disabilities~excellent long-term memory~poor short-term memory~extensive vocabulary~oral vocabulary more sophisticated than written~ excels in reading comprehension~struggles with decoding words~excels in mathematical reasoning~does poorly at computation~advanced verbal skills in discussions~refuses to do written work~facile with computers~handwriting is illegible~grasps abstract concepts~has difficulty with spelling and phonics~performs better with challenging work~struggles with easy, sequential material~thrives on complexity~difficulty with rote memorization
10 Signs of Giftedness Signs of Learning Disabilities ~highly creative, imaginative~often inattentive in class~reasons well~emotions can overpower reasoning~is a keen observer~poor auditory memory~may have acute hearing~poor listening skills~has very interesting ideas, extremely curious~weak in language mechanics~had high degree of energy~may be unable to learn unless interested~perceptive~performs poorly on timed tests~insightful (seems "wise")~hopelessly disorganized~excellent sense of humor~finds clever ways to avoid weak areas~may excel at art, science, geometry, mechanics, technology, or music~may fail at foreign languages and subjectsemphasizing audition, sequencing, memory(Silverman)
11 Strengths vs. Deficiencies Strengths DeficienciesThinking Abilities Self ExpressionHigh Creativity Organizational AbilitiesLong-term Memory Short-term MemoryAbstractions Sense Perceptions (distractibility, staticon the auditory channel, sensori-motor)Problem Solving Social InteractionsInsight Self-esteem (Coleman, 1996)Organizational Difficulties can be: Thoughts going inThoughts coming out Stuff Time
12 …he realized at a really inopportune time. I’m a manof few words…he realized at a really inopportune time.How’s theessay coming,Jeremy?
13 It’s SPELLING TEST TIME! Speling…no…Spellin…Sepling…I got it!It’s SPELLING TEST TIME!
14 A a Н н N n Б б B b П п P p Д д D d Р р R r Э э E e С с S s Ф ф F f Spelling Test Time!!! For your spelling test today, use the symbols in the shaded box to write your words. In other words, the word “tar” would be spelled “Tap” and the word “vary” would be spelled “Bapbl”.A aН нN nБ бB bП пP pД дD dР рR rЭ эE eС сS sФ фF fШ шSh shГ гG gТ тT tХ хH hУ уU uИ иI iВ вV vЛ лL lЫ ыY y
15 Indicators of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Look beyond test scores.Look for kids whose performance varies significantly in different areas.WISCStudies have shown no consistent pattern in GTLD studentsThere may be a discrepancy between VCI and PRI (VerbalComprehension Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index)It is important to look at the subtest discrepancies also.There is a tendency for twice exceptional children to have:Trouble with: Arithmetic, Digit Span, Codingsometimes: Picture CompletionHigh scores in: Comprehension, Vocabularyoften: Information, Similarities,Picture Arrangement, and Block DesignDivergent answers bring down the score. Twice exceptional children tend to elaborate during testing as that is their way of demonstrating their knowledge or creativity.
17 Identified Giftedand Unidentified Learning Disabledgood verbal skillspoor spelling and/or handwritingdisorganized in their classworkdiscrepancies between strengths & weaknesses widen as they grow olderoften viewed as "underachieving"if identified LD - tremendous weight lifted off their shouldersoften passed over for LD support as they are achieving at grade level
18 and Unidentified Learning Disabled Unidentified Giftedand Unidentified Learning Disabledbright enough to compensate for their learning disabilityusually appear as average studentsusually recognize their giftedness and disability as adultsneed occasions where they can show their superior thinking in creative waysLD masks gifts and gifts mask LDoften gifts emerge in specific content areas or in learning environments where non-traditional methods are used
19 Identified Learning Disabled Unidentified Gifted –Identified Learning Disabled~usually excel in an area of interest~first noticed for what they cannot do~disability depresses their intellectual performance~good reasoning and thinking skills detected by teachers and/or parents~most "at risk" because the LD label tends to have a focus on deficits~often have incredible projects in the works at home~focus is so much on their disability it is difficult for them to give themselves credit for their abilities
21 What every learning disabled child would love to ask…
22 Library Gifted Learning Disabled or Underachievement? Just because a gifted student is notproducing does not mean he or sheis learning disabled.Other reasons for underachievement:Unrealistic expectations by othersMay seek rewards in different environmentsSocial or emotional problemsStudent's self-expectations can be toohigh (a task may never be able to becompleted to perfection)Student may have a conflict with school value system i.e. grades are trivialMay not have learned study skills due to ease of curriculum in earlier gradesMotivation, interest, and specific aptitude influence the amount of effort(Baum, 1991)LibraryI’m looking for something to tell me how to be totally unique without anyone being able to tell.
23 ADHD vs. GiftedADHD (DSM-IV, 1994) G/T (Silverman, 1993)~difficulty with sustained attention, ~poor attention, often due to,daydreams boredom, daydreams~failure to concentrate unless ~lack of persistence on tasks inone-to-one that seem irrelevant~failure to complete independent ~task completion often reliant onactivities personal interests~ability to listen attentively seems ~often appears bored duringdiminishes discussions~messy, disorganized environment ~possible disinterest inorganization~impulsivity, poor judgment ~judgment lags behind intellect~problems adhering to rules for ~intensity possibly leading toregulating behavior struggles with authority~activity level often heightened ~frequently high activity~trouble following directions ~questions rules, directions
24 ADHDHIGHLY CREATIVE~often fails to finish tasks, especially those demanded externally~broad range of interest often prohibits task completion~distractible but not in all situations~great attention in self-selected work~frequent shifts in activities~adaptable and sometimes erratic~does not appear to listen~hypomanic to the point of not listening~daydreams~imaginative~misplaces items needed for work completion~so preoccupied as often to overlook the concrete~difficulty organizing work~finds order amidst chaos~needs a lot of supervision in order to meet deadlines~freedom of spirit that rejects externally imposed limits~excessive activity~high energy level~often engages in challenges without considering consequences~willing to take risks in order to satisfy plans for creative pursuits~frequently acts without thinking~often impulsive in actions~solitary activities often preferred~independent often preferring to be alone~social interactions may be negative~little interest in relationships~talks while tackling tasks~self-talk during creative work~prone to rapid changes in mood~often experiences emotional variabilityCrammond, 1991
25 Categories of Specific Learning Disabilities LD TerminologyDisabilityArea of difficultySymptoms include trouble withExampleDyslexiaProcessing languageReading, writing & spellingLetters and words may be written or pronounced backwardsDyscalculiaMath skillsComputation, remembering math facts, concepts of time & moneyDifficulty learning to count by 2s, 3s, 4sDysgraphiaWritten expressionHandwriting, spellingIllegible handwriting, difficultyDyspraxiaFine Motor SkillsCoordination, manual dexterityTrouble with scissors, buttoning, drawingInformation Processing DisordersAuditory Processing DisorderInterpreting auditory informationLanguage development, readingDifficulty anticipating how a speaker will end a sentenceVisual Processing DisorderInterpreting visual informationReading, writing, and mathDifficulty distinguishing letters like “h” and “n”Other Related DisordersAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)Concentration and focusOver-activity, distractibility & impulsivityCan’t sit still, loses interest quicklyTwenty-third Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of IDEA, US Department of Education, 2001
26 Reading Fluency Test Time! Groups of twoOne person is the recorder and one is the reader.When we say “begin” the reader will have one minute to read as much as he or she can of the passage in orange print.The recorder will make a mark on the white paper each time the reader incorrectly reads a word.The recorder will write down the number of words the reader was able to read during the one minute time frame and subtract the number of errors. The resulting score is the reader’s fluency score.The reader and the recorder will reverse roles and go through the same process with a new reading passage.
27 Is it ADHD or Giftedness? Does the child show these behaviors at home?Could a lack of interest or relevancy play a part?Is the child unable to concentrate even when interested in the subject?Have any curricular modifications been made in an attempt to change the behaviors?Has the child been interviewed? What are his or her feelings about the behaviors?Does the child feel out of control?Do the parents perceive the child to be out of control?Has the child been taught strategies to limit stimuli and deal with stress?Has the child been taught appropriate social skills?Can the "inattentive" child repeat the instructions?Do the behaviors occur at certain times of the day, during certain subjects, with certain teachers, in certain environments and not in other circumstances?Is the child getting the appropriate amount of teacher attention?Does the child demand constant attention from the teacher?Is the child just demonstrating his or her personality, type of giftedness, or intensity? (Silverman, 1994)
28 Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student NURTURE GIFTS, RESPECT CHILDCurricular NeedsDifferentiationChallenging material at advanced levelInterdisciplinaryDon't make everything a secret Language Arts lessonMake the curriculum relevantProvide individually paced curriculum in areas of giftedness & disabilityUsing strengths to compensate for weaknessesFind a mentor in the child’s area of interest who likes childFind the child’s interest area and use that area to remediateLove sharks + poor reader = start with books about sharks
29 Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student AccommodationsBooks on tapeAlphaSmart or other word processorSpell checker/spelling guideInspiration software
30 Teaching Strategies More Accommodations Assisted note taking Computers for instructionStudy guidesHighlight in different colorsYellow for spelling errorsPink for grammar errorsGather information through interviews, videos, experimentsOptions for communicating ideasSlides, models, speeches, mime, mural, video productionAvoid rote memorization and timed testsTape lecturesCalculatorOral testsAbbreviate written assignmentsAllow extra time for assignments and tests
31 Teaching StrategiesEquate success with effortPromote active inquiry involving discussion & experimentationProvide open-ended challenges that require divergent thinkingOffer options that enable child to use his strengths andlearning styleIncorporate projects that investigate realproblems & real audiencesHighlight abstract thinkingDesign enrichment activities to circumventweaknessesProvide options to all students so child isn’t singled outEncourage looking for relationships and patterns
32 More Teaching Strategies Create a supportive environmentModel celebrating individual differencesMinimize "teacher talk"Use mnemonics for concepts requiring recallEncourage visualizationGet eye contact before speakingTeach goal settingIndependent Projects in area of interestTeach child how to break down project into partsAllow child opportunity to share with class and/or to showcase the talent
33 CounselingProvide emotional supportTeach child to be his or her own advocateIf possible, have child work with other GTLD studentsHelp child become aware of strengths and weaknessesTeach social skillsFind role modelsOrganizational StrategiesColor code book covers and notebooksGraphic organizersCreate flow chartsColored stickers on deskRed = turn in homeworkYellow = put homework in backpackBlue = take lunchbox home
34 Time managementHow long do you think it will take? Have student time himself or herself.Use egg timerGet watch with alarmStrategies for parentsTake photos of things to remember- tape to the back of the door or mirrorRearrange room to make it practicalFind tutor - don't be homework heavy - celebrate child's giftsWork with the school to create a supportive teamBe a role modelFocus on effort, not gradesDo not allow child to use learning disability as an excuseExpect child to use skills; have child do practical tasks(i.e. thank you notes)