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History of Gifted Education and Theories of Intelligence

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1 History of Gifted Education and Theories of Intelligence
EDPS 540 – Spring 2006 Rebecca L. Mann

2 “Gifted” depends on the values of the culture:
Primitive Civilizations Survival of the fittest Ancient Civilizations Greeks Sparta - valued military skills Athens - valued academics for upper class Romans - valued architecture, engineering, law Chinese - valued multiple talents Japanese - educated children based on social class

3 China, turn of the century, testing stalls. You see the roof tiles
China, turn of the century, testing stalls. You see the roof tiles. Proctors watched from the tower.

4 Pre-Renaissance Europe
Church as keeper of knowledge Renaissance Europe valued art, literature, architecture

5 Sir Francis Galton Anthromopetric Lab Measured physical and sensory capacities Intelligence was fixed, in-bred, inherited


7 “Genius is a symptom of hereditary degeneration”
Cesare Lombroso “Genius is a symptom of hereditary degeneration” Alfred Binet Contributed notion of mental age First standardized IQ test “The scale, properly speaking, does not present the measure of intelligence because intellectual qualities are not superposable and therefore they can’t be measured as linear surface are measured.” 1904

8 Early America Services for gifted education sparse
Occasional programs in the form of tracking, telescoping, acceleration, grade-skipping, and special schools By 1920, two-thirds of major U.S. cities had gifted programs

9 1920’s and 1930’s and 1940’s Declining programs Equity became focus, interest in gifted waned Great Depression World War II

10 Charles Spearman - 1863 - 1945 L.L. Thurstone - 1887 - 1955
Two factor theory of intelligence “g” = general factor and “s” = specific ability L.L. Thurstone Intelligence is really several primary mental abilities Seven relatively different abilities Factor analyzed intelligence and perception tests

11 Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky - 1896-1934
Modern Constructivism: Sociocultural Theory Humans have ability to alter their environment Zone of Proximal Development Amount of learning possible when given instruction

12 Leta Hollingworth - 1886 - 1936 Nuturant Mother of gifted education
Highlighted social and emotional needs of gifted Wrote first college text on gifted, taught first course Established gifted programs in New York City

13 Lewis Terman - 1877-1956 Father of gifted education movement
Supervised modification of Binet-Simon test First longitudinal study of gifted children Study began in 1922, continued by others after his death Students were physically, socially and psychologically healthier than the average


15 1957 - Sputnik Effect 1963 - Death of JFK LBJ’s Great Society
Resurgence of gifted education Identification, ability grouping, acceleration, telescoping Death of JFK LBJ’s Great Society Special Education moved to the forefront, gifted lagged

16 Jean Piaget - 1896 - 1980 David Weschler - 1896 - 1981
Four stages of mental growth in children Qualitative not quantitative David Weschler Took Binet-Simon and reclassified it Intelligence is multifacted Developed tests for children and adults (WISC & WAIS)

17 J. P. Guilford Three dimensional Structure of the Intellect Intelligence too complicated to be summed up in one number or “g” factor

18 Raymond Cattell Fluid Intelligence : Intelligence which allows us to learn new things, regardless of past experience. (Innate Intelligence) Crystallized Intelligence : Ability to solve problems based upon previous experience.

19 Marland Report Resurgence with Federal definition of giftedness Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act lost federal funding funding restored

20 Joseph Renzulli - 1936 - Three ring model of giftedness
Broadened concept Multiple criteria Schoolwide Enrichment Model

21 WHAT MAKES GIFTEDNESS? Task Commitment Above Average Ability
Creativity A I U C C T P

22 Howard Gardner - 1943 - Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence is multifacted Not designed as an educational prescription Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic

23 Robert Sternberg - 1949 - Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence
Based on relationship between intelligence, environment, the external and internal world First to include creativity and practical knowledge

24 Sternberg’s Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg believes that intelligence is comprised of three separate, though interrelated, abilities:

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