Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nation-States"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Rise of Nation-States Middle Ages: EuropeThe Rise of Nation-States
2 Rise of Nation StatesBackground: European monarchies consolidated power and began forming nation-states in the late medieval period.Nation-states are large groups of people who are ruled by one central government, who share a common language and who feel a sense of loyalty to the group.
3 England 1. William the Conqueror – leader of the Norman Conquest united most of England after the Battle of Hastings2. Common Law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II
6 England3. King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215 which limited the King’s power, gave more power to nobles: **Parliament**4. The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define England as a nation.
9 France1. Hugh Capet established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France.2. The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define France as a nation.
19 Russia2. Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar. The tsar was the head political figure in Russia who controlled the region. (like a king!) 3. The Orthodox Church influenced unification
20 The Crusades Background: The Crusades were carried out by Christian political & religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
21 Economic CausesYounger sons looking for land and the ability to increase social statusMerchants made $ by making loans and leasing shipsIncrease trade with Muslim traders
22 Religious Causes Crusaders were guaranteed a place in Heaven Reclaim Holy Land for Christianity
23 Pope Urban IIThe pope promised remission of sins: “All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested.” (Council of Clermont- 1095)
24 1st Crusade Recaptured Jerusalem 1099 Established the Crusader states: EdessaTripoliAntioch
25 Crusades 2nd: 1147- Edessa was attacked by Muslims 3rd: Saladin retakes JerusalemKing Richard the Lion-Hearted vs. Saladin =truce4th: Sack of Constantinople
28 Effects of the Crusades 1. Weakened the Pope; strengthened Monarchs2. Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East3. Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims4. Weakened the Byzantine Empire
29 The Black Death: Background: In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (or Bubonic Plague) destroyed the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe.
33 Economic and Social impact of the Black Death in much of Asia and Europe 1. Decline in population – 1/3 of Europe died2. Scarcity of Labor – not enough people to work , farms abandoned3. Towns freed from feudal obligations – feudalism breaking downSerfs left manors in search of better wages
34 Economic and Social impact of the Black Death in much of Asia and Europe 4. Decline of church influence – prayers failed to stop the plaguePriests wouldn’t perform services for those who were dying5. Disruption of trade – declined as prices rose, less people willing to travel