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Lesson 1 The Erosion- Deposition Process

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1 Lesson 1 The Erosion- Deposition Process
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The Erosion- Deposition Process Lesson 2 Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind Lesson 3 Mass Wasting and Glaciers Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Menu

2 How do erosion and deposition shape Earth’s surface?
Chapter Introduction

3 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
The Erosion-Deposition Process How can erosion shape and sort sediment? How are erosion and deposition related? What features suggest whether erosion or deposition created a landform? Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC

4 Reshaping Earth’s Surface
A combination of constructive processes and destructive processes produce landforms. Constructive processes build up features on Earth’s surface. Destructive processes tear down features on Earth’s surface. Lesson 1-1

5 The breakdown of rock—weathering— is one type of destructive process that changes Earth’s surface.
Lesson 1-2

6 A Continual Process of Change
Chemical weathering alters the chemical composition of rock. Physical weathering is the breaking of rock into pieces, called sediment, without changing the chemical composition of the rock. Water, wind, and ice are agents, or causes, of weathering. Lesson 1-2

7 A Continual Process of Change (cont.)
The mineral composition of some rocks makes them less resistant than others are to weathering. The difference in the rate of weathering can produce unusual landforms. Lesson 1-2

8 Lesson 1-2

9 Erosion Erosion is the removal of weathered material from one location to another. Agents of erosion include water, wind, glaciers, and gravity. Factors that affect the rate of erosion include weather, climate, shape of the land, and type of rock. Lesson 1-2

10 Erosion (cont.) The presence of plants and the way humans use the land affect the rate of erosion. The rate of erosion sometimes depends on the type of rock. Weathering breaks some types of rock into large pieces. Other rock types easily break into smaller pieces that are more easily transported. Lesson 1-2

11 Erosion (cont.) As rock fragments bump against each other during erosion, the shapes of the fragments can change. How can erosion affect the shape of sediment? Lesson 1-2

12 Erosion (cont.) Erosion also affects the level of sorting—separating of items into groups according to one or more properties—of sediment. Sediment is often well-sorted when it has been moved a lot by wind or waves. Lesson 1-2

13 Erosion (cont.) Poorly sorted sediment often results from rapid transportation, perhaps by a storm, a flash flood, or a volcanic eruption. How can erosion sort sediment? Lesson 1-2

14 Deposition Deposition is the laying down or settling of eroded material. deposition from French deposer, means “put down” Lesson 1-2

15 Deposition (cont.) As water or wind slows down, it has less energy and can hold less sediment, which can result in some of the sediment being deposited. Sediment is deposited in locations called depositional environments, such as swamps, deltas, beaches, and the ocean floor. Lesson 1-2

16 Deposition (cont.) High-energy environments, like rushing rivers and ocean shores with large waves, are those in which sediment is transported and deposited quickly. Small grains of sediment are often deposited in low-energy environments, like deep lakes, areas of slow-moving air, and swamps. Sediment deposited in water typically forms layers called beds. Lesson 1-2

17 Deposition (cont.) How are erosion and deposition related? Lesson 1-2

18 Interpreting Landforms
Landforms can have features that are clearly produced by erosion. Different rates of erosion can create unusual landforms like tall, protruding landforms called hoodoos. Glacial erosion can produce ice-carved features in mountains. Lesson 1-3

19 Interpreting Landforms (cont.)
Landforms created by deposition are often flat and low-lying. An apron of sediment, called an alluvial fan, often forms where a stream flows from a steep, narrow canyon onto a flat plain at the foot of a mountain. Lesson 1-3

20 Interpreting Landforms (cont.)
Deposition along a riverbed occurs where the speed of the water slows down and can result in a sandbar. What features suggest whether erosion or deposition created a landform? Lesson 1-3

21 Rock fragments with rough edges are rounded during transportation.
Erosion occurring at different rates can carve rock into interesting landforms. Rock fragments with rough edges are rounded during transportation. Landforms created by deposition are often flat and low-lying. Lesson 1 - VS

22 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind What are the stages of stream development? How do water erosion and deposition change Earth’s surface? How do wind erosion and deposition change Earth’s surface? Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC

23 Shaping the Land with Water and Wind
Water and wind are two important agents of weathering, erosion, and deposition. Erosion by water and wind can change the shape of landforms. Lesson 2-1

24 Water Erosion and Deposition
Streams are active systems that erode land and transport sediment. The erosion produced by a stream depends on the stream’s energy. This energy is usually greatest in steep, mountainous areas where young streams flow rapidly downhill. Water from a young stream slows down as it reaches gentler slopes and is then called a mature stream. Lesson 2-2

25 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
A meander is a broad, C-shaped curve in a stream. A stream moves slowly when it reaches flat land and is then called an old stream. As time passes, erosion of the outside bend of a meander, where water is flowing more quickly, occurs. Deposition occurs on the inside bend, where water flows more slowly. Lesson 2-2

26 Over time, meanders change shape due to erosion and deposition.
Lesson 2-2

27 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Waves crashing into shore erode loose sand, gravel, and rock along coastlines. A longshore current is a current that flows parallel to the shoreline. This current moves sediment and continually changes the size and shape of beaches. Lesson 2-2

28 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Water erosion can also form caves, stacks, and arches. How does water erosion change Earth’s surface? Lesson 2-2

29 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Flowing water deposits sediment as the water slows down. Slower-moving water deposits sediment on the inside curves of meanders. A delta is a large deposit of sediment that forms where a stream enters a large body of water. Lesson 2-2

30 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Much of the sand on most ocean beaches was originally deposited by rivers. Longshore currents transport the sand along ocean coasts and deposit it where the currents have less energy. Lesson 2-2

31 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
How does water deposition change Earth’s surface? Water deposition forms many structures within caves. Lesson 2-2

32 Water Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Ocean waves can erode beaches by removing sediment. To reduce erosion, people sometimes build structures such as retaining walls or groins. Reducing or removing vegetation from the land surface is one of the most common ways that surface erosion is increased. Lesson 2-2

33 Wind Erosion and Deposition
Abrasion is the grinding away of rock or other surfaces as particles carried by wind, water, or ice scrape against them. A dune is a pile of wind-blown sand. Lesson 2-3

34 Wind Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Loess is a crumbly, windblown deposit of silt and clay. loess from Swiss German Lösch, means “loose” Lesson 2-3

35 Wind Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Plowed fields and dry, overgrazed pastures are two ways in which people contribute to wind erosion. How do wind erosion and deposition change Earth’s surface? Lesson 2-3

36 Water erosion changes Earth’s surface
Water erosion changes Earth’s surface. An example of this is the change in features of a stream over time. Water transports sediment and deposits it in places where the speed of the water decreases. Wind erosion can change Earth’s surface by moving sediment. A dune and loess are two types of wind deposition. Lesson 2 - VS

37 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Mass Wasting and Glaciers What are some ways gravity shapes Earth’s surface? How do glaciers erode Earth’s surface? Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC

38 Mass Wasting Mass wasting is the downhill movement of a large mass of rocks or soil because of the pull of gravity. Mass wasting commonly occurs when soil on a hillside is soaked with rainwater. A landslide is the rapid downhill movement of soil, loose rocks, and boulders. Lesson 3-1

39 Mass Wasting (cont.) Two types of landslides are a rockfall and a mudslide. Slump is a type of mass wasting where the material moves slowly, in a large mass. If the material moves too slowly to be noticeable, causing trees and other objects to lean over, the event is called creep. Lesson 3-1

40 Mass Wasting (cont.) When material reaches a stable location, such as the base of a mountain, the material is deposited. Talus is a pile of angular rocks and sediment from a rockfall. Lesson 3-1

41 Mass Wasting (cont.) Human activity, such as removing vegetation, can affect both the severity of mass wasting and the tendency for it to occur. Landscaping or building on a slope can make the slope steeper and more likely to undergo mass wasting. Lesson 3-1

42 Glacial Erosion and Deposition
A glacier is a large mass of ice that formed on land and moves slowly across Earth’s surface. The two main types of glaciers are alpine glaciers and ice sheets. Glaciers erode Earth’s surface as they slide over it, carving the land as they move. Lesson 3-2

43 Alpine glaciers produce distinctive erosional features.
Lesson 3-2

44 Sediment that was frozen in a glacier’s ice is eventually deposited in various forms.
Lesson 3-3

45 Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Till is a mixture of various sizes of sediment deposited by a glacier. till Science Use rock and sediment deposited by a glacier Common Use to work by plowing, sowing, and raising crops Lesson 3-3

46 Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
A moraine is a mound or ridge of unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier. moraine from French morena, means “mound of earth” Lesson 3-3

47 Glacial Erosion and Deposition (cont.)
Outwash is layered sediment deposited by streams of water that flow from a melting glacier. A small change in Earth’s average temperature causes considerable melting of glaciers. As glaciers melt, sea level rises around the world. Lesson 3-3

48 Mass wasting can occur very fast, such as when a landslide occurs, or slowly over many years.
Material moved by a mass wasting event is deposited when it reaches a relatively stable location. An example is talus deposited at the base of a hill. Lesson 3 - VS

49 A glacier erodes Earth’s surface as it moves and melts
A glacier erodes Earth’s surface as it moves and melts. Glaciers can form U-shaped valleys when they move past mountains. Lesson 3 - VS

50 Erosion and deposition are constructive and destructive forces that shape Earth’s surface by building up and tearing down landforms such as coastlines, dunes, rivers, lakes, mountains, glaciers, and deltas. The BIG Idea

51 Lesson 1: The Erosion-Deposition Process
Erosion is the wearing away and transportation of weathered material. Deposition is the laying down of the eroded material. Erosion tends to make rocks more rounded. Erosion can sort sediment according to its grain size. Landforms produced by deposition are usually on flat, low land. Landforms produced by erosion are often tall and/or jagged. Key Concepts 1

52 Lesson 2: Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind
A young stream moves quickly down steep slopes. A mature stream moves more slowly and develops meanders. An old stream is wider and moves slowly. Water erosion forms V-shaped valleys. Longshore currents reshape beaches. Deposition of sediment from water can form deltas. Wind abrasion can alter the shape of rock. Wind deposition can form a dune or loess. Key Concepts 2

53 Lesson 3: Mass Wasting and Glaciers
Gravity can shape Earth’s surface through mass wasting. Creep is an example of mass wasting. A glacier erodes Earth’s surface as it moves by carving grooves and scratches into rock. Key Concepts 3

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