Presentation on theme: "Capitalization and Punctuation Chapter 13, pg 234."— Presentation transcript:
Capitalization and Punctuation Chapter 13, pg 234
Why? Writers use capital letters and punctuation marks to help the reader better understand what is written.
1 st word of every sentence All sentences begin with capital letters. W e enjoyed reading the book. T hose girls finished cleaning the counter.
Specific things/places (proper nouns) Proper nouns begin with capital letters. M rs. C lark asked if A my would help. U ncle R ob took us to T exas.
Capital Letters The pronoun I is always capitalized. I don’t need your help. My aunt and I picked up the papers.
Capital Letters A capital letter begins the first, last, and any important word in the title of a book, magazine, song, movie, poem, or other work. Read the last chapter of T om S awyer. She saw S now W hite when she was five years old.
To capitalize or not to capitalize Do! Days of the week, months of the year, holidays Language, nationalities, races, religions, deities, sacred terms Titles: the first word and every important term First words of direct quotes Historical events, periods Brand names Don’t Seasons Common nouns that refer to religious places like “church” Titles: do not capitalize articles (the), prepositions (of, under, OVER), or short connecting words (or, and) Directions (north, south, east and west- unless used in a place name)
Practice, exercise 2 pg 219 1. Every tuesday, the general visits the hospital. 2. On one level, the book the lord of the rings can be read as a fairy tale: on another level, the book can be read as a christian allegory. 3. The golden gate bridge in san francisco may be the most beautiful bridge in the world. 4. She is the sister of my french teacher. Tuesday, the general visits the hospital. The Lord of the Rings Christian allegory. Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco may French teacher.
Practice, exercise 2 pg 219 continued 5. I’ve always wanted to take a trip to the far east in spring. 6. The kremlin, located in moscow, once housed the soviet government 7. I needed to see dr. Ghavami, but the nurse told me the doctor would not be in until next week. 8. He shouted angrily, “why don’t you ever arrive at your history class on time?” I’ve always wanted to take a trip to the Far East in spring. The Kremlin, located in Moscow, once housed the Soviet government. I needed to see Dr. Ghavami, but the nurse told “Why don’t you ever arrive
Punctuation: Comma (214) separate three or more items in a list or a phrase. He was silent, lonely, and afraid. Or He was silent, lonely and afraid.
Punctuation: Comma separates items in an address or date. Miami, Florida January 6, 2003
Punctuation: Comma Set off number of adjectives that modify a noun My favorite, old, green coat.
Punctuation: Comma To combine two simple sentences, use the comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) The house was on fire, but I was determined not to leave.
Punctuation: Comma Follow introductory words, expressions: In the beginning, I never thought I would. Surrounding word/phrase when the idea interrupts. Dave, who is a doctor, said to!
Punctuation: Comma In numbers of one thousand+ 1,001 Set off exact words in a dialog “I won’t,” he insisted, “do this!” When you need a short pause To John, Russel is the best!
Punctuation: Apostrophe To form possessive The teacher’s pen To form plurals (prevent confusion) he writes a’s and o’s When one+ letters omitted Can’t, shouldn’t, She’ll
Punctuation: Quotation Marks Quotation marks are used to identify the exact words of a speaker. President Bush said, “ We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail. ”
Punctuation: Quotation Marks Quotes or Material copied word-for-word from a source Titles of short stories, one- act plays, poems, articles, songs, essays, chapters of books When terms are referred to in a special way.
Punctuation: Semi-Colon To join 2 independent clauses He decided to use the map; she decided to ask. In front of adverbial conjunction to join 2 sentences He decided to use a map; however, she decided to ask. In a series of items when the items themselves have commas! I had lunch with Linda, my best friend; Mrs. Armstrong, my English teacher; and Jan, my sister-in-law.
Punctuation: Colon Before a list of items Please order: five dozen pencils, twenty rulers, five tacks. In the salutation of business letter To whom it may concern: Indicating time 1:15pm Between title and subtitle of a book In Plain English Please: A Rhetoric