Sections (1,2) Outline: Section (1) A. Nouns: A. Nouns: a. Singular Nouns a. Singular Nouns 1. Articles (definite/indefinite) 1. Articles (definite/indefinite) b. Plural Nouns: b. Plural Nouns: 1. Regular/ Irregular. 1. Regular/ Irregular. B. Pronouns: B. Pronouns: a. Pronouns and verb to be a. Pronouns and verb to be C. Adjectives: C. Adjectives: a. Four types of Adjectives (Nationality Adj., etc) a. Four types of Adjectives (Nationality Adj., etc) D. Negativity: D. Negativity: a. Affirmative vs. Negative sentence. a. Affirmative vs. Negative sentence. E. Questions: E. Questions: a. Yes/No questions a. Yes/No questions b. W/h questions b. W/h questions F. Prepositions. F. Prepositions.
Nouns Singular Nouns: We have to use articles with singular nouns. (a/an/the) Definite article (the) Ex: I like the school. Indefinite article (a/an) Ex: I eat a banana (Use a before a consonant) He wants an umbrella ( Use an before a vowel)
The Sounds of English Consonants: The consonant sounds are different from the vowel sounds. Vowel Sounds: (a, e, i, o, u) Articles: a/an Before a consonant sound, we use (a). Ex: a boy Before a vowel sound, we use (an). Ex: an ice. Note: we care about sounds, not letters. Horse: a horse Hour: an hour
Plural Nouns: *Plurality means more than one. A boy (singular)___ boys (plural) There are regular and irregular plurals Noun ending 1)Most consonants 2)Specific consonants (s, ss, sh, ch and x 2)Specific consonants (s, ss, sh, ch and x 3)Conosnant +y 3)Conosnant +y 4)Vocal+y 4)Vocal+y 5)F 5)F Rule 1) +s 2) +es 3)Drop (y) and add-ies 4) Add –s 5) Change to –ves example example Books Buses BabiesBoysKnives Regular plurals
Irregular plural Irregular plurals: There is no particular rule. So, we have to memorize them. Ex: a woman _____women a child_______ children a fish________ fish
as We use subject pronouns to replace the noun I, you, he, she,it (singular) We, you, they (plural) Subject pronouns+ Verb to be I am a student (Affirmative) I am not a student (Negative) “Marxism & Literature” Subject pronouns
Adjectives Possessive Adjectives Possessive Adjectives Nationality Adjectives Descriptive Demonstrative Ex: I am Saudi Adjectives Adjectives ex: This is my pen ex: He is cute. Ex: This is a pen. ex: He is cute. Ex: This is a pen.
Questions W/h questions Yes/ No questions W/h questions Yes/ No questions ex: Where’s the flag? Ex: is it a dollar? ex: Where’s the flag? Ex: is it a dollar? Here’s the flag Yes, It is. Here’s the flag Yes, It is. Note: Where’s the girl? here’s the girl Where is the girl? here is the girl Where is the girl? here is the girl
W/H Question When? Time Where? place Who? person Why? reason How? Manner What? Object/Idea/Action Prepositions of place: In/on/at/above/under/behind….etc.
Section (2) Outline A. (It) to talk about weather B. (It) to tell the time and the date. C. Questions with what, when. Prepositions of Time D. Statements with (there+ to be). E. Questions with (There+ to be) F. The Conjunctions. G. The simple past of to be H. The simple past of to be : Questions
Section (2) It, There, and the simple past of to be We Use the pronoun (it) To refer to to refer to weather Things. Ex: It is sunny. Ex: It is a cat. (It) to talk about weather: What’s the weather like? It is sunny.
It to talk about Time and Date What time is it? It is eleven minutes past ten. What’s the date today? It is July 6 th. (or it is the 6 th of July). When is your birthday? It is on Monday.
A. (In): 1. Parts of the day (ex: in the morning) 2. Seasons (ex: in the summer) 3. Months (ex: in July). 4. Years ex: (in 1986). B. (On) 1. Days (ex: on Sunday) 2. Dates (ex: on the 4 th of July 1998) C. (At) we use it before a specific time (at 10:00 O'clock) Before the word (night) (at night) Prepositions of Time
Statements with (There) Statements with (There) There + verb to be = something exists. There is a book on the table. (Affirmative) There is not a book on the table (Negative) If the sentence is negative and plural, we have to put (any) after verb to be. There aren’t any books on the table..
Also, If the sentence is plural and we want to form Yes/no Question out of it, we have to use the word any. Ex: Are there any eggs in the refrigerator? No, there aren't any eggs in the refrigerator. No, there aren't any eggs in the refrigerator. Questions with How many? How many restaurants (plural noun) are (to be) there?
The conjunctions (and, but, and or ): The use of a comma: (2 sentences) Ex: The food is good, and it is cheap. We don’t use a comma: 1. Descriptive Adjectives: (good and cheap) 2. Two nouns: (Ahmed and Ali) 3. Two prepositional phrases: (in the fridge and on the table) A phrase is “a group of words acting as a single part of speech and not containing both a subject and a verb. It is a part of a sentence, and does not express a complete thought.
The simple Past of to be: Affirmative and negative Sentence: She is a doctor. (simple present) She was a doctor. (simple past). Was she a doctor? (Question) Was she a doctor? (Question) I, he, she, it was You, we, they were Negative: She was (not) a doctor. Time expressions: Yesterday, four hours ago, last week, etc.. W/H questions: Where were you born? I was born in Saudi.